Orthodox Party: Patriarch Michael Keroularios And Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus
On 16th July, 1054, the Patriarch of the Constantinople Michael Kerularius had been excommunicated from the church of the Christians which was based in Rome of Italy. The excommunication of that of Patriarch of the Constantinople Michael Kerularius had been considered to be the breaking point of the long rising turmoil as well as tensions in between the Roman church which is based in Rome as well as in the Byzantine church which is based in Constantipole. The result of the split had formed the division in the European Christian church into two of its major branches- the Western Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. This separation is termed as the Great Schism or the Schism of 1054 which ranged from the timeline of 1000 CE until the year of 1200 CE within which excommunicating of the two religious leaders had taken place.
The Patriarch of the Constantinople Michael Kerularius from the duration of March 1043 to the November of 1058 had been considered for he had figured out the events which led to the Schism of 1054 in a very prominent way. The goal of Michael Kerularius had been in order to force down the Latin churches within his diocese for using the Greek language as well as the practices pertaining to the liturgical ways. And, he also ordered for them to be closed down whenever the Latin churches had refused to obey his orders. During the time of 1054, Michael Kerularius’s goal was to obstruct the efforts made by Constantine and Pope Leo when the latter decided to send the three legates to the Constantinople for negotiating the alliance with that of the Byzantine Empire.
The Great Schism of 1054 had been emerged for the reason of the complex mix of the religious turmoil as well as disagreements and the conflicts related to the politics in that era. There were many religious disagreements and objections in between the two branches related to the church of the western (Roman) as well as the eastern (Byzantine). These disagreements of the religious and political constraints on the people had a great role to play on the decision of whether or not it had been accepted for the use of the unleavened bread for the purpose of the sacrament of the communion. The religious dispute also included a variety of the political conflicts as well regarding the power of Rome which was of the opinion that the Pope, who is considered to be the religious leader for the western church, must pose for the authority over the patriarch, who is considered to be the religious leader for the eastern church.
The main underlying issues of the Great Schism of 1054 had been regarding the disputes concerned with the papal authority wherein the Pope who is considered to be the religious leader for the western church held the opinion that he had the major authority on the patriarch, who is considered to be the Greek speaking religious leader for the eastern church. In addition to this, the issue had also been raised over the fact of the insertion regarding the filioque clause into the sacred Nicene Creed. Further, another important issue of the Great Schism of 1054 was related to the dispute regarding the use of the images inside of the church. There had also been the political turmoil regarding excommunication of Michael Kerularius as well as the whole of the Eastern Church during the Great Schism of 1054, to which the Eastern Church had retaliated with the excommunicating of the Roman pope Leo III as well as the whole of the Roman Church along with him. The military cause had been related to the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of the ice for which there had been some of the conflicts in between the Catholic Poland and the Orthodox Russia which had solidified the Great Schism of 1054.
The Cardinal Humbert had entered the church of the St. Sophia which is located at the Constantinople at the seat of Michael Kerularius who is the religious leader for the Eastern Church. The Cardinal Humbert had placed a bull which is considered to be the papal edict for the excommunication of the altar. After exhibiting his actions at the Constantinople, he had marched out which had been followed by the church official who is a frantic and he had begged him in order for him to take the papal edict back with him. To which the Cardinal Humbert had refused and the edict had been dropped at the street of Constantinople. Therefore, Michael Kerularius had no other option other than the excommunication.
The Great Schism of 1054 had occurred in between the church of the Constantinople as well as the Church of Rome. After the great division of the eastern Byzantine Christian Church as well as in the western Roman Catholic Church, the control and the choices of the Popes in Rome had been in the power after the excommunication of the Patriarch Michael Kerularius to claim for the supremacy of the papal over the church of the Constantinople to which the religious leader for the eastern church had been rejected. There had been choices prevalent to the two religious leaders of respective churches that they had excommunicated each other with their power and choices that they had.
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