Computer Science Question

computer science multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.

Answer the questions from the slides and from the book.
Read the instructions carefully and follow them,
Don’t copy from the internet or from studypool documents.
Do not try to rephrase previous solutions.
Book: Vivek Kale (2019), Enterprise Process Management Systems: Engineering Process-Centric Enterprise Systems using BPMN 2.0, CRC Press, ISBN: 9780429842344
Requirements: 800 – 850 words
Explain the System requirements categories in a brief manner. Explain each category with the help of example/s.
Quality attributes can be described in a variety of ways. Discuss in detail any two groups supported with examples.
How many types of Enterprise modeling representations. Explain each of them in detail.
Explain the life cycle for the Business process and Elaborate on steps

College ofComputingandInformatics InformationTechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek3CharacteristicsofBusinessProcesses
RequiredReading1.Chapter2(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcessCentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)RecommendedReading1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)
WeeklyLearningOutcomes1.Describes theframeworkformeasuringbusinessprocess performance intermsofthe dimensionsoftimeliness,cost, andquality.
Contents1.BusinessProcess2.ProcessPerformance3.ProcessCycleTime4.ProcessCosts5.ProcessQuality6.MeasuringProcessPerformance
1.BusinessProcess
1. BusinessProcess•Abusinessprocessisasetoflogicallyrelatedtasksperformedtoachievea well-definedbusinessoutcome.•Abusinessprocessdefines:➢Theresultstobeachieved,➢The contextoftheactivities,➢Therelationshipsbetweenthe activities,➢Theinteractionswithotherprocessesandresources.•A businessprocessmayproduceeventsforinputtootherapplications or processes.•Abusinessprocessisacoordinatedandlogicallysequencedsetofworkactivitiesandassociatedresourcesthatproducesomethingofvaluetoacustomer.
1. BusinessProcess–Cont. Abusinessprocesshasthefollowingbehaviours:1.It may containdefined conditions triggering its initiation in each newinstanceanddefinedoutputsatitscompletion.2.Itmayinvolveformalorrelativelyinformalinteractionsbetweenparticipants.3.Ithasa durationthatmayvarywidely.4.It maycontainaseriesofautomatedactivitiesand/ormanualactivities.
1. BusinessProcess(cont.)5.Itexhibitsa verydynamicnature.6.Itiswidelydistributedandcustomizedacrossboundarieswithinandbetweenenterprises.7.Itisusuallylong-running—asingleinstanceofaprocessmayrunformonthsor evenyears.
2. ProcessPerformanceProcess-orientedenterprisesconsideranyenterprise asa process that converts inputintooutputcharacterizedby:1.Inputandoutputs:•Inputsareanytangibleor intangibleitemsthatflowintothe processfromtheenvironment.•Outputsareanytangibleorintangible itemsthat flowfromtheprocessbackinto the environment.2.Flowunits:•Aflowunit orjob isanitemthatflowsthroughout theprocess.
2. ProcessPerformance–Cont. 3.Anetworkofactivitiesandbuffers:•An activity is the simplest form of transformation; it is actually a miniprocessinandofitself.•Abufferstoresflowunitsthathavefinished oneactivitybut arewaitingfor thenextactivitytostart.4.Resources•Resources aretangibleassetsthatareusuallydividedintotwocategories:capitalandlabour.
2. ProcessPerformance–Cont. 5.Informationstructure•describestheinformationthatisneededand availableinordertoperformactivitiesortomakemanagerial decisions.
2. ProcessPerformance–Cont. ▪Theprocessflowisadynamicprocessthatstartswhenaninput entersa processandcontinuesprocessingthroughoutdifferentkinds ofprocessactivitiesandendswhenitleavestheprocessasits output.
2. ProcessPerformance–Cont. Threekeymeasuresoftheprocessflow:1.Cycletimeorflowtime,whichisthe timeittakestocompleteanindividualflowunitor jobfromstarttofinish.➢Processingtime➢Inspectiontime➢Transportingtime➢Storagetime➢Waitingtime2.Flowrateorthroughput,whichisthenumberofjobsperunitoftime.
2. ProcessPerformance –Cont. 3.Inventory,whichisthetotalnumberof flowunitspresentwithintheprocessboundaries.•The inventory within the framework of the process depends on the differencebetweentheinflowrateandoutflowrate.✓R(t)meansthe flowrateatacertainpointof timet.✓Ri(t) means inflow; this is the flow rate of flow units that enter the processthroughitsentrypoints.✓Ro(t) means outflow; this is the flow rate of flow units that leave the processthrough itsexit points.
2. ProcessPerformance–Cont. 4.Little’sLawForastableprocess:Itdefinesthe fundamentalrelationshipbetweenaverageinventory,averageflowrate,andaveragecycletimeinastableprocess.•Averageflowrateorthroughputistheaveragenumberofflowunitsthatflow through theprocessper unitoftime.•A stable process is one in which the average inflow rate is the same as the averageoutflowrateacrossanextendedperiod of time;thatisR=Ri=Ro
2. ProcessPerformance –Cont. •Theaveragecycletimeisthe averageacrossallflowunitsthatexit theprocessduringaspecificperiodoftime.•Average inventory is the number of flow units within the process boundaries atanypointin time.➢Theaverageinventoryequals theaverageflowratetimestheaveragecycletime;thatis,I=R*T.➢Example.
3. ProcessCycleTime1.Theoreticalcycletime•The theoretical cycle time of a process is the minimum amount of timerequiredforprocessingatypicalflowunit withoutanywaiting.•Itisthe sumofthe timesof thoseactivitiesthattheflowunitpassesthroughandwherespecific kinds oftasks areundertaken toprocessit.•Activity time is the time required by a typical flow unit to complete theactivityonce.2.CriticalpathAprocessflowispresentedusingadiagrammatictechniquelikeaflowchart.Thelongestpathintheprocessflowchartisthecritical path.•All activities that constitute the critical path of the process flowchart arecalledcriticalactivities.
3. ProcessCycleTime–Cont. 3.The criticalpathmethodisbasedoncalculatinga variablecalledtheslacktimeofactivity.•Slacktime: isthe extent to which activity could be delayed without affecting process flowtime(i.e., cycle time).•Acriticalactivity:is anactivitywhose slacktimeisequalto0.➢The critical path consists of all those activities for which the slack time isequalto0.
3. ProcessCycleTime –Cont. ➢Todeterminethecriticalpath,twoschedules havetobe calculated:A.Forwardschedule-calculatestheearliestpossiblestarttime(ES)andthe earliest possible finishtime(EF)ofeachactivitywithintheprocess.1stactivity, ES=1,where1means1-timeunit.Otheractivities,ES= 1+max(EF)ofimmediatepredecessoractivities. EF= ES+ d+ 1, wheredisdurationtimeoftheactivityB.Backward schedule -calculates the latest possible start time (LS) and the latestpossiblefinishtime(LF)foreachactivityoftheprocess.1stactivity,LF=EFOtheractivities,LF=min(LS)ofimmediatesuccessoractivities−1LS= LF− d+1, wheredisthedurationtimeoftheactivity.
3. ProcessCycleTime –Cont. 4.Slack time (S): The slack time of an activity is the amount of time that could be spent in addition to the duration time of the activity, without causing a delay to the starttimesofimmediatesuccessoractivities.S=LF−EF=LS−ES5.Cycle-time efficiency: the ratio between the theoretical cycle time and the averagecycletime.Cycle-timeefficiency=theoreticalcycletime/averagecycletime
1.Thesumof the theoreticaland waitingtimes.Cycle time=theoreticalcycletime+waitingtime Averagecycletimeof aprocesscanbe obtainedby:•Treatingwaitingin eachbufferasanadditional(passive)activitywithanactivitytimeequalto theamount oftimeinthatbuffer.•Adding waitingtimestothetheoreticalcycletimeof theappropriate path.•Obtainingthe averagecycletimeoftheprocessbyfindingthe pathwhoseoveralllength(activityplus waiting)is thelongest.3.1 ComputingCycleTime
3.1 ComputingCycleTime–Cont. 2.Usingvalue-addingandnon-value-addingactivities.•Value-adding activities are those activities that increase the economic valueofaflowunit because the customervaluesthem.•Non-value-adding activities are activities that, while required by the firm’sprocess,do notdirectlyincreasethe valueof aflowunit.Cycle time=value-adding cycle time−non-value-addingcycle time
3.1 ComputingCycleTime-Cont. 3.ComputingthecycletimeusingLittle’slaw.•Computing the average cycle time of a process by finding the longest cycle time of the process flowchart—that is, by finding the critical path of the process.
3.2 ProcessFlowAspects1.Rework•Aprocessflowchartmaycontainoneormoresegmentsofanumberofsequentialactivitieswhoseexecutionneedstoberepeatedseveraltimes,dependingon a decisionactivity,wherethevalue ofa certainconditionisdefined.•Thisisknownasareworkorexecutionloop;eachrepetitionofareworkloopiscalledavisit.2.MultiplePaths•Thereare anumberofcasesinaprocessflowchartwhere,afteradecisionactivity,theprocess flowsplitsintotwoormorepaths.•Thisformulacanbeusedtocomputetheaveragecycletimeforaprocessflowthatsplitsintomultiple pathsafteradecisionactivity:T=p1*T1+p2*T2+…+pm*Tmpiistheprobabilityof followingtheflowofpathiTiisthe sumof timesof activitieswithin pathimis thenumberofpaths
3.2 ProcessFlowAspects-Cont. 3.ParallelPaths•Theprocessflowchart maycontainoneormoresegmentsthatareconstructedfromparallelactivities.•Thecycletimeofthepartof theprocesswithparallelpaths is representedbythemaximumsum oftimesofactivitiesin theparallelpaths.T=max(T1,T2,…,Tm)Tiisthesumoftimesofactivitieswithinpathi mis thenumberof paths
•Consideringthattheaverageflowrateorthroughputisdefinedastheaveragenumberofflowunitsor jobsthatflowthroughtheprocessperunitoftime,theprocessingcapacityisthemaximumsustainableflowrateof aprocess.3.3 ProcessCapacity
1.Resources-thecapacityofa processdependsontheresourcesthatareusedintheprocess.Performinganyactivityrequiresoneormoreresources,andeveryresourcemaybeinvolvedinperformingoneormoreactivities.•Resourcepool-acollectionofinterchangeableresourcesthatcanperformanidenticalsetofactivities.•Resource-pooling-associatingdifferentresourcepoolsintoajointresourcepoolinordertocarryoutasetofactivitieswithinaprocess.3.3 ProcessCapacity-Cont.
3.3 ProcessCapacity–Cont. 2.TheoreticalCapacity-Thetheoreticalprocesscapacityisthemaximumsustainablethroughputrateforthe processoperatingwithoutinterruption.Theactualprocesscapacitywillalwaysbeless thanthe theoreticalcapacitydueto:•Resourcebreakdowns:Amachinemaybecomeunavailableduetoa breakdownorahuman resourcemay be absent.•Preventivemaintenance:Machinesrequireregularmaintenanceto operateatmaximum efficiency; this scheduled preventive maintenance makes theresourceunavailableforprocessing.•Process flow inefficiencies: A resource may become idle due to theunavailabilityofwork.•Demand variation: As described earlier, the mismatch between demand andcapacitycancause underutilization.
3.3 ProcessCapacity –Cont. The flow unit on its way through different activities is processed by a numberof resourcepoolswithpredeterminedcapacities;•The pool with the lowest capacity is termed the resource bottleneck oftheprocess.•Since the capacity of a process cannot be better than the process’sbottleneck resource pool, this effectively makes it the defining capacity ofthewholeprocess.•Assumingthatwehavea resourcepoolpwithcpresourceunits,Rp=cp/Tp✓Rpisthetheoreticalcapacityoftheresourcepool ✓cpis the number of resource units in the pool✓Tpis theunit load ofthe resourcepool
3.3 ProcessCapacity –Cont. Iftheresource units in acertainresourcepooldonothavethesame theoreticalcapacity➢thetheoreticalcapacityoftheresourcepooliscomputedasthesumofallofthe theoreticalcapacitiesofitsconstitutingresource units,provided thefollowing conditions aretrue:1.Theflowunitsareperformedbyresourceunitssequentiallyonebyone.2.Theresourceunitsareavailableinthesamequantityoftime.•Load-batchingandscheduledavailabilityareimportantfactorsthathavea realeffecton thetheoreticalcapacityof theprocess.•Loadbatching istheabilityofaresourceunit toprocessa numberofflowunitssimultaneously•Scheduledavailabilityasthequantityoftimeinwhicharesourceunitisscheduledto performadeterminedwork•Thus,thetheoretical capacityofresourcepoolpwithcpresourcesis, Rp=cp/Tp*loadbatch* scheduledavailability
3.3 ProcessCapacity –Cont. 3. Capacity Utilization Itmeasures the degree to which resources areeffectivelyutilizedbya process.•Itindicatestheextenttowhich resources,whichrepresentinvestedcapital, areutilizedtogenerateoutputs.•For each resource pool, capacity utilization of the process is defined as thecapacityutilizationof thebottleneckresourcepool.ρp=R/RpRisthethroughputRpisthe theoreticalcapacityofaresource pool
3.3 ProcessCapacity –Cont. The theoreticalcapacitycan beimprovedby:1.Decreasingtheunitloadon thebottleneckresourcepool(i.e.,work faster,worksmarter)2.Increasingtheloadedbatchofresourcesinthebottleneckresource pool(i.e.,increasethescaleof theresource)3.Increasingthenumberofunitsinthebottleneckresourcepool(i.e., increasethe scaleof theprocess)4.Increasingthescheduledavailabilityofthebottleneckresource pool(e.g.,worklonger)
4. ProcessCostsA cost component:It is any activity for which a separate cost measurement isdesired(e.g. the materials consumed, inventory, labour, or overhead of theprocess).Ways to classify costs include:1.Direct cost-costs that can be directly and exclusively attributed to a particularcost object. Thesearetracedtothework unitandassigned.2.Indirectcosts-coststhatcannotbe directlyandexclusively attributedtoa particular cost object. These cannot be traced to the work unit because theyarecommoninmanyworkunits.
4. ProcessCosts–Cont. Otherwaystoclassifytheprocesscostcomponentsare:1.Fixedcosts,whichremainconstant foralllevelsof output.2.Variablecosts,whicharethecosts perworkunitandthereforevarywith thenumberofsales.
5. ProcessQualityQualitycanbedefinedfromthe twodifferentperspectives:1.Customer’s perspective-the degree to which a product or service satisfies theneedsandexpectationsof thecustomer.2.Enterprise’sperspective-thedegreetowhicha productor serviceconformstothespecificationsdesignedfortheproductorservice.•Quality-by-Design means that –A product or service cannot meet customer needs unlessthe enterprise perceivesthatcustomerneedsand designs aproductorservicetofulfil those needs and designsaproductor service tofulfilthoseneeds.
5. Processquality-Cont. Toinstitutequalityprocesses,anenterpriseperformsthreemain functions:1.Design quality products and services by understanding customer needandtranslatingtheminto productandservicespecifications.a.A quality functionaldeploymentmethodologyandtoolstranslatethecustomerneedsintotheattributesofaproductorservice.Theprimarytoolofquality functionaldeploymentis:➢Thehouseofquality,amatrixthatdenotesthestrengthoftheassociationbetweena product orserviceattributeandcustomerexpectationsusingarangefrom0 to9,with9 indicatinga verystrongassociation.➢This matrixindicatesthedegree ofcorrelationbetweenproductattributesaseitherweak,medium, orstrong.
5. Processquality -Cont. b.Poka-yoke:Todesignquality intotheproduct,theprocessthatproducestheproductshouldbefailproof.➢Inmanufacturing,partsmaybe designedsothatthey canonly be assembledin thecorrectway,thusremovingthe needfortheworkertothinkabouthowthepartsgotogetherandpossiblymaking an error.➢Inserviceindustries,checklistsareusedtoremindthepersonto doalloftheproceduresforeverycustomer.•Poka-yokedesignstheprocesssoastoeliminatethepossibility ofqualityproblemsbeforetheycanhappen.c. Taguchimethod:Anydeviationfromthetargetisundesirable.Normally,anyvaluethatfellwithin thelowerand upper specificationswasconsideredgood.➢Thequadratic lossfunctionsaysthatany deviationfromthetargetvalueresultsin aloss.
5. Processquality -Cont. 2.Deliverqualityproductsandservicesbyhavingprocessesthatproducenodefectsanddemonstratelittlevariability.•The underlying principle of statistical quality control is that all processesexhibitvariationintheiroutput.•Some of the variationsarecalled common cause variationsand aredue to theinherentcharacteristicsof theprocess.•Anothervariation is the result of special causes that can be attributed to a specificproblem.•Statisticalprocesscontrolusescontrolchartstomonitor processes.•The design of a quality process involves instituting the correct feedback loopssoasto constantlymonitorand controlthe process.•The usage of control charts helps to maintain process variability within a smallrangeofvalueswithin whichthevariability isexplainedonlybycommoncausevariation.
5. Processquality -Cont. 3.Improve the quality of their processes by establishing continuous processimprovement programs (e.g. DMAIC, Six Sigma) that run parallel to the corebusinessprocesses.Theanalysisteamsneedtoidentifyimprovementopportunitiesto:•Eliminatewaiting time(a waste)•Eliminatewastedmovementor effort•Minimize inventory•Eliminaterepairand rework•Minimizematerialmovement•Minimizeinspections•Reducethevarietyofinputs,processes,andoutputs•Reducecycletime•Improvemachinereliability•Improveflexibility ofresources
6. MeasuringProcessPerformanceAprocess performance measurement system focuses on an individual business process, rather than on the entire company or an organizational unit.
6. MeasuringProcessPerformance–Cont. Figure 2.1: Process performance measurement systems
6.1 Conceptsfor PerformingMeasurement1.Processperformancemeasurementbasedonindicators,measures, andfigures.•Twoperformanceindicators canbeidentified: time (asaninputfactor) andservicequantity(asanoutputfactor).•Performancemeasures representtheoperationalizationof eachidentifiedperformanceindicator.•Performancefiguresenablethesummarizationandrepresentationoflargeamounts of datain acondensedandprecisemanner.
6.1 Conceptsfor PerformingMeasurement –Cont.2.Measurementstodetermineprocessperformance•Performancefiguresarehighly dynamic.Theselection ofstrategicallyimportant performance indicators arerelated to the notion of “critical successfactors”.•Qualityindicatorsdescribethe degreeto whichtheactualproductattributesandpropertiesconformtotheunderlyingproductspecifications.•Timeindicatorsareconsideredtobean indicatorof competitivenessandprocessperformance.•Flexibilityindicatorsdescribethe degreetowhichaproduction or serviceprocess can be modified, including the timeline and costs associated with therestructuringof aproduction or serviceprocess.
6.2 FrameworksforMeasuringProcessPerformance•The performance pyramid framework stresses a hierarchical view of performance. Itconsiderstherelationshipbetween:•Strategic performance(e.g.,fulfillingthevision)•Processperformance(e.g.,quality,cycletime)•The layer connecting the two hierarchical levels depicts those performance indicators that impact both levels (e.g., customer satisfaction, flexibility, and productivity).
6.2 FrameworksforMeasuringProcessPerformance-Cont.Figure 2.2: Performance pyramid
6.2 FrameworksforMeasuringProcessPerformance-Cont. •This framework constructs a process-oriented performance measurement systemthat highlights the distinction between input, throughput, and output that isconsideredfordeterminingperformanceindicators accordingto thisclassification.
6.2 FrameworksforMeasuringProcessPerformance-Cont. Figure 2.3: Framework for constructing a process-oriented performance measurement system.
MainReference1.Chapter2(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcess-CentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)AdditionalReferences1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)
ThankYou

College ofComputingandInformatics InformationTechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek4SystemsTheory
RequiredReading1.Chapter3(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcessCentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)RecommendedReading1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)
WeeklyLearning Outcomes1.Reviewthebasicconceptsofsystemsthinking,systemsscience, systemsengineering,andsystemsarchitecting.2.Understandtheoriginofthesignificanceofenterprisearchitecture andtheconstitutingbusinessarchitecture,informationarchitecture, applicationarchitecture,andtechnicalarchitecture.3.Providethecontextforthesignificanceofbusinessprocessesin contemporaryenterprises.
Contents1.SystemsThinking2.SystemsEngineering3.SystemsArchitecting4.EnterpriseArchitecture5.EnterpriseProcesses
1.SystemsThinking
1.SystemsThinking•Asystemisdefinedasa setofelementsthathaveoneor morerelationshipsbetweenthem.•Systemsthinkingistheprocessbywhichoneseekstounderstandthoseelementsandrelationshipssoastobeable tounderstandthebehaviourofthe systemasawhole.
1.SystemsThinking•The relationshipsbetweensystemelementscanbe:•Strictlydeterministic(i.e., controlledbyphysical or otherlaws)•Completelystochastic(subjecttochance)•Morecomplex•Systempredictability-theabilitytoforecastthesystem’snextstateor states.Thischangeinthe statemightbe:•An inevitableresponsetoendogenousvulnerabilitiesthatarealready present inthesystem•Anunanticipatedresponse to anexogenousshock
1.1 SystemsScienceParadigmsofSystems Thinking:1.Hardsystemthinking(HST)•Goal-seeking strategies using quantitative tools to achieve an optimal or near-optimalsolution.•Require a clear definition of ends and the optimal means for achieving thoseends.•Best-suitedfortacklingproblemsthat don’tinvolvehumanactivitysystems.2.Soft systemsthinking(SST)•A form of systemic thinking that understands reality as the creative thinkingofhuman beings.•Takes into consideration social reality as the construction of people’sinterpretation of their experiencesand workswiththeaspirationsofpeople’sviews, interpretations,andintentions.
1.1 SystemsScience–Cont. 3.Criticalsystemsthinking•Practitionershaveusedboth HSTand SST,and foundthatemancipatoryinterests for dealing with inequalities, such as power and economicdifferencesin society, werenotbeingadequatelyconsideredbySST.•Criticalsystemsthinkingemergedto addresstheseinequalities.4.Multimodalsystemsthinking(MST)•MST uses 15 performance indicators to question the validity of decisions madebyplannersandpolicy-makers.•Manyoftheseperformance indicatorscoverissuesofsustainabilityaswellasenvironmentalandethicalissues.
1.2 Principlesof SystemsScienceThe principles of systems science include the following:1.Theideaofsystemness.Systemsinteractwithothersystems,formingstilllarger systems.Theuniverseis composedofsystemsof systems.2.Systemsareprocessesorganizedinstructuralandfunctionalhierarchies.3.Systems are themselves and can be represented abstractly as networks ofrelationsbetweencomponents.4.Systemsare dynamiconmultipletimescales.5.Systemsexhibitvariouskindsand levelsofcomplexity.6.Systemsevolve.* For the complete list of the principal, see page 49 in the textbook
Within the boundary of a system, we can find three kinds of properties:1.Elements-thekindsofparts(thingsorsubstances)thatmakeupa system.Thesepartsmaybeatomsormolecules,orlargerbodiesofmatterlikesandgrainsandplants.2.Attributes-characteristicsoftheelementsthatmaybeperceived andmeasured(e.g.quantity,size,colour,volume,andmass)3.Relationships-theassociationsthatoccurbetweenelementsandattributes.Theseassociationsarebasedoncauseandeffect.1.2 Principlesof SystemsScience –Cont.
1.2 Principlesof SystemsScience –Cont.The state of the system can be defined by determining the value of its properties (the elements, attributes, and/or relationships). So, Systems can be classified as: 1.Isolatedsystem,whichhasnointeractionsbeyonditsboundarylayer.Manycontrolledlaboratoryexperimentsarethistypeofsystem.2.Closedsystem,whichisasystemthattransfersenergy,butnotmatter,acrossitsboundarytothesurroundingenvironment.Ourplanetisoftenviewedas aclosedsystem.3.Opensystem,whichisa systemthattransfersbothmatterandenergyacrossitsboundarytothesurroundingenvironment.Mostecosystemsareexamplesof opensystems.
2. SystemsEngineering•Thepurposeofsystems engineering(SE)istosupportorganizationsthatdesireimprovedperformance.•SE isacomprehensive,iterativetechnicalmanagementprocessthatincludestranslatingoperationalrequirementsintoconfiguredoperationalsystems.•SEis a lifecycleactivitythatdemandsaconcurrentapproachtobothproductandprocessdevelopment.•SE encouragestheuseofmodelingandsimulationtovalidateassumptionsortheorieson systemsandtheinteractions withinthem.
2.1 SystemDynamicsviaSimulationModelling•System dynamics simulations enableone not only to observe events but also toseepatternsofbehaviourovertime.•Understanding patterns ofbehaviour,instead offocusingonday-to-dayevents,canofferaradicalchangeinperspective.•Itshowshowasystemstructureis thecauseofitssuccesses and failures.•System dynamics simulations are good at communicating not just what mighthappen,but also why.•The primary assumption of the system dynamics paradigm is that the persistentdynamictendencies ofanycomplexsystemarisefromitsinternalcausalstructure.•Asystemdynamicistislikelytolookforexplanationsofrecurringlong-termsocialproblemswithinthisinternalstructureratherthaninexternaldisturbances,smallmaladjustments,orrandomevents.
2.2 ChangeableSystems1.IncreasingComplexity-Newtechnologiescreatenewopportunitiesand challenges.Interfacesareincreasinglymorecomplexand systemintegration is moredifficult.2.MoreDynamic-Systems interactwith theirenvironmentand theneedsof stakeholders evolve in concert with this interaction. Rapid changes in the environmentrequiresystemstobedynamictocontinuetoprovidevalueto consumersof productsand services.3.GrowingSecurityConcerns-Manysystemsfaceincreasingsecurity challengesduetothreatsfrom maliciousadversariesranging fromhackersto terrorists.4.RisingPrivacyConcerns-Assystemsbecomemorecomplex,more interconnected, andfacemoresecuritychallenges,thepotentialforprivacy violationsincreases.
5.IncreasingInterconnectedness-TheInternet andadvancesin information technology (IT) have led to business-to-business collaboration and a global economyenabledby pervasiveinterconnectedness.6.ManyStakeholders-Theincreasingcomplexityandinterconnectednesshas contributed tothe risein the numberof stakeholdersinvolvedin thesystemlife cycle.2.2 ChangeableSystems –Cont.
3. SystemsArchitecting•Architecturedesignisturningthecornerfrom therequirementsspacetothedesignspace.•Coarse-grained designsthatdescribe grosspartitioningofa systemintosomecollection ofelements thatcanbecode-oriented,runtime,orphysicalstructures.•Architectureprovidesameanstopartitionthesystemintoelementsthatcanlater bedesigned in detail.•Architecturecanbescrutinizedandstudiedtoexposeweaknessespriortodetailedelementdesign andimplementation.•Architecturecan beusedtoguideoverallconstructionby servingasa prescription forhowtheelementscan beassembled,resultingin asystem withpredictablepropertiesandbehavior.
3. SystemsArchitecting –Cont. Table 3.2: Comparison of Architectural and Detailed Designs
3. SystemsArchitecting –Cont. Systems design:It is theprocessofdefiningthearchitecture,components,interfaces,and othercharacteristicsofasystemorcomponentof asystemwhere:•“Component”referstoaphysicalpartorelementthatisamemberofthesystem.•“Interface”referstotheboundaryofacomponentandthepointofconnectionbetweencomponents.•“Othercharacteristicsofasystemorcomponentofasystem”refers tothefunctionalbehaviourofthesystemaswell as thebroadsystemic propertiesitpossessessuch as performance, availability, scalability, modifiability, and so on.
•Systems architectureItis concerned with partitioning the system into componentsandidentifyingtheirresponsibilities and rules forinteractiontoensurethat thenecessaryfunctionalandquality attributerequirementsaremet.•ArchitecturaldesignIt is notastate ofbeingbutrather ofbecoming-itis aprocess.•Architecturaldesignsidentifythe partsofthesystem,enterprise, orsoftwareandhowtheywillinteracttorendera service.•Architecturalrequirementsarethosethat willinfluencethearchitecture utmostas it initially decomposes the system and selects the fundamental structures thatwillform it.3. SystemsArchitecting –Cont.
3.1 FunctionalArchitecturalRequirements•Functionalarchitecturalrequirementshavetheleast influence ondesign.•High-levelfunctional requirementsarebestdescribedwithuse cases.•Use casesare notmodels forfunctionaldecomposition,nor shoulddesignersusethemtodescribehowthesystemprovidesservices.•Use case models describeswhat is needed ina system in terms of functionalresponsestogivenstimuli.•Use case models servesas acommunicationvehicleandencouragedialoguebetweentechnicalandnon-technicalstakeholders.
3.2 NonfunctionalArchitecturalRequirements•Nonfunctionalarchitecturalrequirementswillhavethemostinfluenceonthedesign.•Nonfunctionalscenariosdescribesomerequirementsintermsof:•Stimulus.•Source(s)ofthestimulus.•Relevantenvironmental conditions.•Architecturalelement(s).•Systemresponse.•Responsemeasure.•Forchangestimuli,wemighthaveresponsemeasuresthatmeasurethecostofchangein termsof timeand cost.•For a performance stimulus, we might have response measures in terms ofthroughput andresponsetime.
4. EnterpriseArchitecture•Enterprise architecture concepts evolved from the systems engineering community but are specialized to address the specific design concerns of very large, highly distributed IT systems and the organizations dependent upon them.•Enterprise architecture frameworks (EAF) are essentially design methodologiesfocusedonbusinessmodeling,businessprocesses,application functionality, andthetechnologicalinfrastructure thatsupportstheenterprise.•EAFembody design strategiesandprovidestep-by-stepguidanceandeventemplatesfordesigning and documentingtheenterprise.•EAFsprescribe asetofartifactsforspecific enterprisestakeholders.•Using anEAF,theenterprisearchitectcreatesvariousartifactsintendedtobe viewsof thesystemfromtheperspective oftheenterprisestakeholders.
4. EnterpriseArchitecture–Cont. •The purposeof EAFistohelpenterprisearchitectsmanagethecomplexityofhighlydistributedsystemsbyprovidingtechniquesandmethodstoidentifykeystakeholdersandtheirrolesintheenterprise.•MostEAFsidentifyanumberof concernsthatwillguidethe designof enterprises,suchas:•Businessrequirements•Stakeholders•Businessprocesses•Environment•Software•Data•Infrastructure
4. EnterpriseArchitecture–Cont. •Enterprise Architecture consisting of 1.Business Architecture, 2.Information Architecture, 3.Application Architecture and 4.Technical Architecture.
•Business Architecture dictates the functional requirements of businessprocesses that determine the ISs that will operationally support thebusiness.•Thecoreconceptwithin thebusinessarchitectureisthebusinessprocess.•Abusinessprocessisasetofvalue-adding activitiesthat operates overinputentitiesproducingoutputentities.•An activity describes the business roles required of theorganizationalentitiesforitsoperation.These roles include:1.Theactorrole–requiresoneactororacombinationorteamofactorstobeexecuted.2.Theresourcerole–usedas inputoroutputofactivityduringitsoperation.3.Theobservablestaterole–isusedasameanstoobservethestatusofanactivity.4.1 BusinessArchitecture
4.1 BusinessArchitecture –Cont. Themajorcomponentsfordescribingthebusinessarchitectureare:•Businessstrategy:keybusinessrequirements,processes,goals, strategies,keyperformanceindicators,businessrisks,andthe business-operatingmodel.•Businessfunction:keybusinessservices,processes,andcapabilities thatwillbe affected by the organizationarchitectureefforts.•Businessorganization:thehigh-levelnatureof organizational structures;businessroles(internalaudiences,externalcustomers, andpartners);thedecision-makingprocess;andorganizational budgetinformation.
4.2 InformationArchitecture•Theinformationarchitecturedescribeswhattheorganizationneedstoknowinordertorunitsprocessesandoperationsasdescribedinthebusinessarchitecture.•Theprincipalcomponentsfordescribinginformationarchitectureare:•Informationstrategy:Informationarchitectureprinciples, informationgovernanceandcompliancerequirements,andcanonicaldatamodels.•Informationassets:Acatalogueofcriticalbusinessdatatypesandmodels;relationshipsbetweensuchbusinessdatatypes;andalltheprocessesandservicesthatinteractwiththesedata.
4.3 ApplicationArchitectureThe applicationarchitecturefulfilstwomajorgoals:1.Supportingthebusinessrequirements2.Allowingefficientmanagementoftheorganization’sentities•It definestheapplicationsrequiredtoenablethebusinessarchitecture.•It includesdescriptionsofautomatedservicesthatsupportthebusinessprocessesandoftheinteractionsandinterdependenciesbetweenanorganization’sapplicationsystems.•Itplansfordevelopingnewapplications,andrevisionsof oldapplicationsbasedontheenterprise’sobjectives.
4.3 ApplicationArchitecture –Cont. •Serviceistheaggregationofasetofoperationsprovidedbyanarchitecturalblock.•Serviceiscomposedof threetypes:1.Businessservice,orasetofoperationsprovidedbyISblockssupportingbusinessprocesses.2.ISservice,ora setof operationsprovidedbyanIS blocktootherIS blocks.ThisisusedtoaggregatemultipleIS blocks.3.ITservices,or asetoftechnologicalservicesprovidedbythespecificapplicationplatforms.
4.3 ApplicationArchitecture –Cont. Theprincipalcomponentsfordescribingapplicationarchitectureare:•Applicationstrategy:Thekeyapplicationarchitecture principles (e.g., build vs.buy,hostedvs.in-house)applicationgovernance; portfoliomanagement; and asetofreferenceapplicationarchitecturesrelevanttothe customer•Applicationprocesses:Aseriesofapplication-specificprocessesthat support thebusiness processesin BA•Applicationservices:Aninventoryof thekeyapplicationservices exposed to internal and externalapplicationsthatsupportthebusiness services•Logicalcomponents:Aninventoryofrelevantproduct-agnosticenterprise applicationsystemsthatisrelevanttostatedbusiness objectives•Physical components: Actual products that support the logical application componentsandtheirrelationshipstorelevantcomponentsandservices in informationandtechnologyarchitectures
4.4 TechnicalArchitecture •Representsthetechnologiesbehindapplicationimplementationas wellastheinfrastructureandenvironmentrequiredforthe deploymentofthe businessprocesssupportsystems.•Addressesa largenumberof conceptssinceitmustcope simultaneouslywithcontinuoustechnologicalevolutionsandthe need toprovidedifferentspecializedtechnologicalperspectives.•Theseconceptsareabstractedas anITblock.•AnITblockistheinfrastructure,applicationplatform,and/or technologicalorsoftwarecomponentthatrealizesorimplementsa set ofISblocks.
4.4 TechnicalArchitecture –Cont. Principalcomponentsfordescribingtechnologyarchitectureare:•Technology strategy, comprises technology architecture principles; technology asset governance methodology; portfolio management strategy;andtechnologystandards,patterns,andRAs.Technologyservices,or aninventoryofspecifictechnology services andtheirrelationshipsaswell asthebusinessservices,application services,informationassets,andlogical orphysicaltechnology componentsthatrealizesuchservices.•Logicalcomponents,ortheproduct-agnosticcomponentsthatexist atthetechnologyinfrastructuretiertosupporteachtechnology service.•Physicalcomponents,or theset of technologyproductsthatexists behindeachlogicaltechnologycomponenttoimplementthe technologyservice.
5. EnterpriseProcesses•Enterpriseprocessesarebusinessstructuresthatmakeuptheenterprise.•Anenterprisemightbecomposedofcustomerservice,inventory, shipping,andproductionorganizations.•Abusiness processisadescriptionofthedynamicinteractionof stakeholdersandtheflowofinformationbetweenthevariousentities thatcomposetheenterprise.•Businessprocessesdrivetheanalysisanddesignoftheenterprise architectureandareusedtoidentifyorganizations,pertinent stakeholders,systems,data,andotherentitiesrelevanttothe enterprise.
5. EnterpriseProcesses –Cont. •Processesaremeansforidentifying,documenting,andanalyzing complexnetworksofhumaninteractionswithorganizationsandthe ITsystemstheyusetoprovideservices,communicate,andgenerally conductbusinessoperations.•Businessprocessesmightdescribethedynamicaspectsof•How acustomer’sorderisprocessed.•Howtheproductismanufactured.•Howtheinventoryisupdated.•How quicklytheproductisdeliveredto thecustomer
MainReference1.Chapter3(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcess-CentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)AdditionalReferences1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)
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College ofComputingandInformatics InformationTechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek5EnterpriseArchitecture(EA)
RequiredReading1.Chapter4(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcessCentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)AdditionalReferences1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1u3CnIM5XSs
WeeklyLearning Outcomes1.Explainenterprisearchitectureasa well-definedpracticefor conductingenterpriseanalysis,design,planning,andimplementation, usingaholisticapproachatalltimes,forthesuccessfuldevelopment andexecutionofenterprisestrategy.2.Describetheviewpoints,views,andperspectivesthatenablean enterprisearchitecture.
Contents1.Architecture2.ViewpointsandViews3.Perspectives (Change,Availability,andScalabilityPerspectives)4.EnterpriseArchitectureFrameworks
1. Architecture•AnEAprovidesahigh-leveldesignof theentireenterprisethatwill guideall otherenterpriseprojects.•Anarchitecturerepresentssignificant,broaddesigndecisionsforthe enterprise,fromwhichallotherdesigndecisionsshouldbe consistent.•TheSoftwareEngineeringInstitute(SEI)definesarchitectureas: “Thearchitectureofasoftware-intensivesystemisthestructureor structuresofthesystem,whichcomprisesoftwareelements,the externallyvisiblepropertiesof thoseelements,andtherelationshipsamongthem”.
1. ArchitectureEAsmajorgoals:1.FortheEA,itsunits,policies,processes,strategies,and technologicalinfrastructure(e.g., ITsystems)tosuccessfully supportall stakeholdersinachievingshortandlong-termbusiness goals andobjectivesof the enterprise.2.FortheEAtofosteranalignmentof thetechnologicalsystems developedbyandusedbyanenterprisewithitsbusinessgoalsand strategicdirection3.FortheEAtohelpanenterprisetolearn,grow,innovate,and respondtomarketdemandsandchangingbasicconditions4.FortheEAfosterandmaintainthelearningcapabilitiesof enterprisessothattheymaybe sustainable
1.1 ArchitecturalElement•Anarchitecturalelementisafundamentalpiecefromwhichasystem canbe consideredtobeconstructed.•Anarchitecturalelementpossessesseveralkeyattributes:•Aclearlydefinedset ofresponsibilities•Aclearlydefinedboundary•A set of clearly defined interfaces, which define the services that the element providestothe otherarchitecturalelements
1.2 SystemsStructuresSystemstructuresareof two kinds:1.Thestaticstructuresofasoftwaresystemdefineitsinternaldesign-time elementsandtheirarrangement.•Internaldesign-timesoftwareelementsmightbemodules,object-orientedclassesorpackages.•Internal dataelementsincludeclasses,relationaldatabaseentities/tables, anddata files.•Internalhardwareelementsinclude computersortheirconstituent partssuchasdiskor centralprocessingunit andnetworkingelementssuchascables.2.Thedynamicstructuresof asoftwaresystemdefineitsruntime elementsandtheirinteractions.•Theyshowhowthesystemactuallyworks,what happensatruntime,and whatthe systemdoesinresponsetoexternal(or internal)stimulus.
1.2 SystemStructuresExternalpropertiesmanifestin twoforms:1.Theexternally visiblebehaviorofasoftwaresystemdefinesthe functionalinteractionsbetweenthesystemanditsenvironment.•Theexternallyvisiblebehaviorof asystem(i.e.,what itdoes) isdetermined bythecombinedfunctional behaviorofits internalelements.2.Aqualitypropertyisanexternallyvisible,nonfunctionalpropertyof asystemsuchas performance,security,orscalability.•Thequalitypropertiesofasystemsuchas performance, scalability,and resilience (how it does it) arise from the quality properties of its internal elements.
1.2.1 QualityAttributes1.Implementationattributes(notobservableatruntime);include:a.Interoperability: Universal accessibility and the ability to exchange data amonginternalcomponentsandwiththe outside world.b.Maintainabilityandextensibility:Theabilitytomodifythesystemandconvenientlyextendit.c.Testability:Thedegreetowhichthesystemfacilitatestheestablishmentof testcases.d.Portability:Thesystem’slevelofindependenceonsoftwareandhardware platforms. Systems developed using high-level programming languages usuallyhavegoodportability(e.g.Java)e.Scalability:Asystem’sabilitytoadapttoan increaseinuserrequests.Scalabilitydisfavorsbottlenecksinsystemdesign.f.Flexibility:Theeaseofsystemmodificationtocatertodifferentenvironmentsor problemsforwhichthe systemwasnotoriginallydesigned.
1.2.1 QualityAttributes2.Runtimeattributes(observableatruntime);include:a.Availability:Asystem’scapabilitytobeavailable24/7.b.Security:Asystem’sabilitytocopewithmaliciousattacksfromoutsideorinsidethesystem.c.Performance:Increasingasystem’sefficiencywithregardtoresponsetime,throughput,andresourceutilization,whichareattributesthatareusuallyinconflictwitheachother.d.Usability:Thelevelofhumansatisfactionderivedfromusingthesystem.e.Reliability: The failure frequency, the accuracy of output results, the meantime-to-failure, theabilitytorecoverfrom failure,andthefailure predictabilityf.Maintainability(extensibility,adaptability,serviceability,testability,compatibility, andconfigurability);the easeofsoftwaresystemchange.
1.2.1 QualityAttributes3. Businessattributes,include:a.Timetomarket:Thetimeittakesfromrequirementsanalysistothe datea productisreleased.b.Cost:Theexpenseofbuilding,maintaining,andoperatingthe system.c.Lifetime:Theperiodoftimethattheproductis“alive”before retirement.
1.2.2 AttributeTradeoffs1.Tradeoffbetweenspaceandtime:Forexample,toincreasethetime efficiencyof ahashtablemeansa decreaseinits spaceefficiency.2.Tradeoffbetweenreliabilityandperformance:Forinstance,Java programs are well protected against buffer overflow due to security measures such as boundary checks on arrays. Such reliability features come at the cost of time efficiency, as compared with the simpler and fasterClanguagethatprovidesthe “dangerous,”yetefficient,pointers.3.Tradeoffbetweenscalabilityandperformance:Forexample,onetypical approach to increase the scalability of a service is to replicate servers. To ensure consistency of all servers, performance of the whole service is compromised.
1.3 CandidateArchitecture•Acandidatearchitectureforasystemisaparticulararrangementof staticanddynamicstructuresthathavethepotentialtoexhibitthe system’srequiredexternallyvisiblebehaviorsandqualityproperties.•Anarchitecturestyle(alsoknownasan“architecturepattern”) abstractsthecommonpropertiesofafamilyofsimilardesigns.•Anarchitecturestylecontainsasetofrules,constraints,andpatterns ofhowtostructurea systemintoasetofelementsandconnectors.•Anarchitecturestyleisaviewpointabstractionforasoftware structurethatisdomain-independent.•Asystemcanadoptheterogeneousarchitectures—thatis,morethan onearchitecturestylecancoexistinthe samedesign.
1.3.1 ArchitectureStyleKeycomponentsof anarchitecturestyle:•Elementsthatperformfunctionsrequiredbyasystem•Connectors that enable communication, coordination, and cooperation among elements•Constraintsthatdefinehowelementscan beintegratedtoform thesystem•Attributesthatdescribetheadvantagesand disadvantagesofthechosen structureForexample:•In the data-centric style, the data store plays a central role and is accessed frequentlybyotherelementsthatmodify data.•In the dataflow style,inputdata aretransformedbyaseries ofcomputational ormanipulativeelements.
1.3.1 ArchitectureStyleMultitierarchitectureiscommonlyusedfordistributedsystems.It usuallyconsistsof threeelementtypes,as follows:1.Theclientelementisresponsibleforgraphical userinterfacepresentation, acceptinguser requests,andrenderingresults.2.Themiddlewareelementgetstherequestsfrom the clientelement, processes therequestsbasedonthebusinesslogic,andsendsadata requesttothebackendtier.3.Thedatastoreserverelementmanagesdata queryingandupdating.All threetypesof elementsareconnectedviaanetwork(e.g.,the Internet).
•Astakeholderinaarchitectureisaperson,group,orentitywithan interestinorconcernsabouttherealizationofthearchitecture.•Aconcernaboutanarchitectureisarequirement,anobjective,an intention,oranaspirationastakeholderhasforthatarchitecture.•Agoodarchitectureisonethatsuccessfullymeetstheobjectives, goals,andneedsof itsstakeholders.•Stakeholders(explicitlyorimplicitly)drivethewholeshapeanddirectionofthearchitecture,whichisdevelopedsolelyfortheirbenefitandtoservetheirneeds.•Stakeholdersultimatelymakeordirectthefundamentaldecisions aboutscope,functionality,operationalcharacteristics,andstructure oftheeventualproductor system.1.4 Stakeholder
2. ViewpointsandViews•A view is a representation of structural aspects of an architecture that illustrateshowthearchitectureaddressesconcernsheldbystakeholders.•An architectural view is a way to portray those aspects of the architecture thatarerelevanttotheconcernswith referencetothisview.•A viewpoint is a collection of patterns, templates, and conventions for constructingonetypeofview.•A viewpoint defines the stakeholders whose concerns are reflected in the viewpoint and the guidelines, principles, and template models for constructingitsviews.•Viewpoints make available a library of templates and patterns that can be used to guide the creation of an architectural view that can be inserted into anarchitecturaldescription.
2.1 ViewpointCatalog•Information, describes the way that the architecture stores, manipulates, manages,and distributesinformation.•Functional, describes the system’s functional elements, their responsibilities,interfaces,and primaryinteractions.•Concurrency,describestheconcurrencystructureofthesystemandmapsfunctionalelementstoconcurrencyunitstoclearlyidentifytheparts of thesystem that can execute concurrently and how this performance is coordinatedandcontrolled.•Development, describes the architecture that supports the software developmentprocess.•Deployment, describestheenvironmentinto whichthesystemwillbedeployed, including capturing the dependencies the system has on its runtimeenvironment.•Operations, describes how the system will be operated, administered, and supportedwhenit is runningin itsproductionenvironment.
2.2 ViewpointBenefits•Managementofcomplexity•Communicationwithstakeholdergroups•Separationofconcerns•Improveddeveloperfocusconsiderstheideathatthearchitectural descriptionisthe foundationofthesystemdesign
•Anarchitecturalperspectiveisa collectionofactivities,tactics,and guidelinesthatareusedtoensurethatasystemexhibitsaparticular setof relatedqualitypropertiesthatrequireconsiderationacrossa numberof thesystem’sarchitecturalviews.•Mostimportantperspectivesforlargeinformationsystemsinclude:•PerformanceandScalability•AvailabilityandResilience•Security•Evolution3. Perspectives
3. PerspectivesAdvantages1.Aperspectiveisausefulstoreof knowledge,helpingone toquickly reviewtheirarchitecturalmodelsforaparticularqualityproperty withouthavingtoabsorbalargequantityof highlydetailed material.2.Aperspectiveactsasaneffectiveguidewhenoneisworkinginanareathatisnewtothem/whentheyareunfamiliarwithitstypicalconcerns,problems,andsolutions.3.Aperspectiveisausefulmemoryaid whenoneisworkinginan areathattheyaremorefamiliarwith,tomakesurethattheydon’t forgetanythingimportant.
3. BenefitsofApplyingPerspectivestoaView•Providescommonconventions,measurements,orevenanotationor languagethatcanbe usedtodescribethesystem’squalities.•Definesconcernsthatguidearchitecturaldecision-makingtohelp ensurethattheresultingarchitecturewillexhibitthe quality propertiesconsideredbytheperspective.•Describeshowonecanvalidatethearchitecturetodemonstratethat itmeetsitsrequirementsacrosseachoftheviews.•Mayofferrecognizedsolutionstocommonproblems,thushelpingto shareknowledgebetweenarchitects.•Helpsworkinginasystematicwaytoensurethattherelevant concernsareaddressedbythesystem.
3. PerspectivesCatalog
3. PerspectivesCatalog–Cont.Perspectivesaredefinedwithdetailslike:•Applicability:explainswhichofyourviewsaremostlikelytobe affectedbyapplyingtheperspective.•Concerns:definesthequalitypropertiesthattheperspective addresses.•Activities:identifiestheimportantqualityproperties,analyzingthe viewsagainsttheseproperties,andmakingarchitecturaldesign decisionsthatmodifyandimprovetheviews.•Architecturaltactics:anestablishedandprovenapproachonecan usetohelpachieveaparticularqualityproperty.•Problemsandpitfalls:explainsthemostcommonthingsthatcango wrongandgivesguidanceonhowtorecognizeandavoidthem.
3. PerspectivesCatalog–Cont.
3.1 TheChangePerspective•Desired quality: The ability of the system to be flexible in the face of the inevitablechangeexperiencedafterdeployment.•Applicability:Moreimportantforlonger-livedandwidelyusedsystems.•Concerns: Magnitude of change, dimensions of change, likelihood of change,timescaleforchange, andwhentopayforchange.•Activities:Characterizethechangeneeds,assessthecurrenteaseof change,and considerthe changetradeoffs.•Architectural tactics: Contain change, create flexible interfaces, apply change-orientedarchitecturalstyles,andbuildvariationpointsintothe software.•Problems and pitfalls: Prioritization of the wrong dimensions, changes that neverhappen,and impactsofchangeoncritical qualityproperties.
3.1 Applicabilityof the ChangePerspectivea.FunctionalviewmaybeinformedbytheChangeperspectiveby enabling thefunctionalstructuretoreflecttherequiredchange.b.Information view may be informed by the Change perspective by mandatinga flexibleinformationmodel.c.ConcurrencyviewmaybeinformedbytheChangeperspective by dictating a particular element packaging or some constraints on the concurrencystructured.DevelopmentviewmaybeinformedbytheChangeperspectiveby determiningtheimpacton thedevelopmentenvironment.e.DeploymentviewmaybeinformedbytheChangeperspective by defining impact on the Deployment view because system change usually affectsstructuresdescribedinotherviews.f.Operational view may be informed by the Change perspective to the extentthatit impactson theoperationalview.
3.1 Tacticsforenhancement•Containchange•Createflexibleinterfaces•Buildvariation pointsintothesystem•Usestandardextensionpoints•Implementreliablechanges•Applychange-orientedarchitecturalstyles
3.2 AvailabilityPerspectives•Desired quality: the ability of the system to be fully or partly operational as and whenrequiredand toeffectivelyhandlefailuresthatcouldaffect system availability.•Applicability:anysystemthathascomplexorextendedavailabilityrequirements, complexrecoveryprocesses,or a highvisibility profile•Concerns:classesofservice,planneddowntime,unplanneddowntime,time to repair,anddisasterrecovery•Activities:capturetheavailabilityrequirements,producetheavailability schedule,estimate platformavailability,estimatefunctionalavailability,and assessagainst therequirements.•Architecturaltactics:selectfault-toleranthardware,usehardware-clusteringand load-balancing,logtransactions,andapplysoftwareavailabilitysolutions.•Problems andpitfalls:asinglepointoffailure,ineffectiveerror detection, overlookedglobalavailabilityrequirements,and incompatibletechnologies.
3.2 ApplicabilityoftheAvailabilityPerspective•The Functional view may be informed by the Availability perspective by enablingthebusiness’sability tooperateeffectively.•The Information view may be informed by the Availability perspective by consideringthesetofprocessesandsystemsforbackup andrecovery.•TheConcurrencyviewmaybeinformed bythe Availabilityperspectiveby incorporatingfeaturessuchashardwarereplicationand failoverinthe system.•The Development view may be informed by the Availability perspective by imposingdesignconstraintson thesoftware modules•TheDeploymentviewmaybeinformed by the Availabilityperspectiveby mandatinga fault-tolerantproductionenvironment.•The Operational view may be informed by the Availability perspective to allow the identification and recovery of problems in the production environment.
3.2 TacticsforEnhancement•Select fault-toleranthardware•Usehardwareclusteringandloadbalancing•Logtransactions•Implementfault-tolerantsoftware•Implementsoftwareavailabilitysolution•Implementbackupanddisasterrecoverysolutions
3.3 ScalabilityPerspective•Desiredquality:the abilityof the systemtopredictablyexecute withinitsmandatedperformanceprofile.•Applicability:systemswithcomplexperformancerequirements;and systemswherefutureexpansionislikelytobesignificant•Concerns:responsetime,throughput,scalability,predictability, hardwareresourcerequirements,andpeak loadbehavior.•Activities:capturetheperformancerequirements,createthe performancemodels,andanalyzetheperformancemodels.•Architecturaltactics:optimizerepeated processing,reduce contentionviareplication,andprioritizeprocessing.•Problemsandpitfalls:impreciseperformanceandscalabilitygoals, unrealisticmodels,anduseof simplemeasuresforcomplexcases.
3.3 ApplicabilityoftheScalabilityPerspective•TheFunctionalviewmaybeinformedbytheScalabilityperspective byrevealing the needforchangesandcompromisestoone’sideal functionalstructuretoachievethesystem’sperformance requirements.•TheInformationviewmaybeinformedbytheScalabilityperspective byprovidingusefulinputtoperformancemodels,identifyingshared resourcesandthetransactionalrequirementsof each.•TheConcurrencyviewmaybeinformedbytheScalabilityperspective tochangetheconcurrencydesignbyidentifyingproblemssuchas excessivecontentionon keyresources.
3.3 ApplicabilityoftheScalabilityPerspective•TheDevelopmentviewmaybeinformedbytheScalability perspectivethroughasetofguidelinesrelatedtoperformanceand scalabilitythatshouldbefollowedduringsoftwaredevelopment.•TheDeploymentviewmaybeinformedbytheScalabilityperspectivethroughcrucialinputstotheprocessofconsideringperformanceandscalability.•TheOperationalviewmaybeinformedbytheScalabilityperspective byhighlightingthe needforperformancemonitoringand management capabilities.
3.3 TacticsforEnhancement•Optimizerepeatedprocessing•Reducecontentionthroughreplication•Prioritizeprocessing•Minimizeuseofsharedresources•Minimizepartitionandparallelize•Makedesigncompromises
4. EnterpriseArchitectureFrameworks•Helps stakeholders to make decisions about enterprise design and operation.•Provides users with some confidence that the use of the reference architecturewill besuccessfulinthecurrentproject.•Facilitatescommunicationoftheenterprisedesign.•Applicabletoawiderangeofenterprisesystemsand scenarios.•Establishes a common means to organize, interpret, and analyze architecturaldescriptions•Identifiesarchitecturalconcerns,genericstakeholders,viewpoints,and abstractionlevels.•Encouragesreuse.•Providesaunified,unambiguousdefinitionof terminology.
4.1 TheZachmanFrameworkSixtypesofviews1.Planner’sView-executivesummaryfortheproject.2.Owner’sView-ahigh-levelviewofthesystemfromtheowner’spointofview.3.Designer’sView-moretechnicallydetailedviewofthesystem.4.Builder’sView-emphasiswillbeonimplementationissuesand constraints.5.Subcontractor’sView-detaileddesignsthataregiventothedevelopment team.6.ActualSystemView-the actualsystemsthatarebeingdeveloped.
4.2 The OpenGroupArchitectureFramework•TOGAFprovidesanapproachfordesigning,planning,implementing, andgoverninganenterpriseITarchitecture.•TOGAFisa setof phasesandassociatedprocessesintheformof an architecturedevelopmentmethod(ADM)thatwillenableanEAtobe createdforanorganization.•Insteadof views,TOGAFfocuseslargelyonmanagementand planning,ratherthantheactualdevelopmentofthearchitectureand itsviews.
4.2 TOGAFADMThe ADMisan iterativeprocess coveringallphasesof EAdevelopment thatisadaptabletothe specificneeds ofanyenterprise.
4.3 FederalEnterpriseArchitectureFramework•FEAFisprimarilyintendedforEAdevelopmentongoinginfederal agenciesforthepurposeofstandardizingthedevelopmentanduseof architectureswithinandbetweenthesefederalagencies.•FEAFprovidesboth,astructure(theConsolidatedReferenceModel) andamethodology(theCollaborativePlanningMethodology).•The ConsolidatedReferenceModelconsistsofsixreferencemodels andprovidesstandardizedcategorizationforstrategic,business,and technologymodel.•The CollaborativePlanningMethodologyisafullplanningand implementationlifecycle forfederalEAsconsistingoftwomain phases:(1)organizeandplanand(2)implementandmeasure.
4.4 Departmentof DefenseArchitectureFramework•DODAFisaview-orientedarchitectureframeworkthatprovidesan organizedmeta-model-basedvisualizationinfrastructurefor addressingspecificstakeholdersconcerns.•Theframeworkconsistsofeightmainviewpointsthatdefinespecifies rulesforconstructingaviewonthesystemunderdevelopment.•AllDODAFviewsmustfollowaUnifiedModelingLanguage-based meta-model.•DODAFcontainsonlyahigh-level,six-stepphasemodelfordealing withthedevelopmentprocessofanEA.
4.5 Ministryof DefenseArchitectureFramework•EachviewpointofMODAFoffersadifferentperspectiveonthesystem ofasystemsprojecttosupportdifferentstakeholderconcernsand interests.•MODAFconsistsofsevendifferentviewpoints:1.AllViewsviewpoint–definethegeneric,high-levelinformation thatappliestoalloftheotherviewpoints.2.StrategicViewviewpoint–definesviewsthatsupporttheanalysis andoptimizationof militarycapability.3.OperationalViewviewpoint–containsviewsthatdescribethe operationalelementsrequiredtomeetthecapabilitiesdefinedin thestrategicviews.
4.5 Ministryof DefenseArchitectureFramework –Cont.4.SystemViewviewpoint–containsviewsthatrelatedirectlytothe solutionthatisbeingofferedtomeettherequiredcapabilitiesthat havebeenidentifiedinthestrategicviewsandexpandeduponinthe operationalviews.5.TechnicalStandardsViewviewpoint–containstwoviewsthatallow allofthe relevantstandardstobedefined.6.AcquisitionViewviewpoint–usedtoidentifyprogramsandprojects thatarerelevanttothe frameworkandthatwillbeexecutedto deliverthecapabilitiesthathavebeenidentifiedinthestrategy views.
MainReference1.Chapter4(EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems:EngineeringProcessCentricEnterpriseSystemsusingBPMN2.0byVivekKale)AdditionalReferences1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterprise informationsystems:A pattern-basedapproach(3rded.)2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1u3CnIM5XSs
ThankYou
ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsInformation TechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402 Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 5Process Architecture
Required Reading1.Chapter 5 (Enterprise Process Management Systems: Engineering Process Centric Enterprise Systems using BPMN 2.0 by Vivek Kale)Recommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern-based approach (3rd ed.).
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.Describe the process views and perspectives that enable an enterprise process architecture.2.Describe the workflow reference model (WFMS) as the reference process architecture for the enterprise process architecture.
Contents1.Process Change Management2.Process Architecture3.Reference Process Architecture: Workflow Systems 4.Workflow Reference Model
1. Change ManagementThere are many different change management approaches and models. Here, we will discuss two of the more common models, namely, the Lewin’s Change Management Model and the Deming Cycle.1.1 Lewin’s Change Management Model•Lewin observed three stages of change:1.Unfreeze phase: In order to encourage change, it is necessary to unfreeze the environment by motivating people to accept the change.2.Transition phase: This is where the change (plan) is executed and actual change is being implemented.3.Refreeze stage: This is when the organization once again becomes unchanging/ frozen until the next time a change is initiated
1.2 Deming Cycle Change Management Model•A continuous improvement model composed of four sequential subprocesses.1.Plan: Recognize an opportunity and plan a change. Understand the gap between residents’ expectations and what is being delivered; set priorities for closing gaps; and develop an action plan to close the gaps.2.Do: Execute the plan in a small scale to prove the concept. Implement changes and collect data to determine if gaps are closing.3.Check: Evaluate the performance of the change and report the results to the sponsor(s). Observe the effects of the change and test—analyze data and pinpoint problems.4.Act: Decide on accepting the change and standardizing it as part of the process.
1.3 Hierarchical OrientationThe key concepts associated with hierarchical orientation are:a.Environments are characterized by stability, limited uncertainty, and limited “consumerism”.b.People follow the structure and rules defined by virtue of their position and responsibilities.c.Markets do not change rapidly and the focus is not on flexibility, quality, service, or innovation.
1.4 Process Orientation•Aprocess orientation adopts a horizontal view of organizations by emphasizing notions of processes, process owners, teams, and empowerment and deemphasizing hierarchical structures.•Business process change integrates different views from quality, information technology, organizational change, innovation, and work redesign.•A process-oriented organization is an organization that defines and manages business processes explicitly.
1.4 Hierarchical Orientation vs. Process Orientation
1.5 Business Process Management•Models of business processes are the basis for BPM.•BPM includes areas such as business process modeling, formal models, analysis and verification of business processes, process mining, and workflow management.•A BPM support system is a generic software system driven by explicit business process designs that enacts and manages operational business processes.•A BPM system allows for the modification of the processes it supports, the deletion of processes, or the incorporation of new processes.
2. Process Architecture•Process architecture is the design and organization of business processes and related components into a unified structure and hierarchy.•Process components, also known as process elements, describe the various units of a process.•Process Architecture aligns perspectives and efforts across all levels and functions in a business.
2. Process Architecture Benefits•Process ownership: ensures accountability for the improvement of end-to-end processes across the enterprise.•Strategy creation: A comprehensive overview of the processes across a company aid in the creation and adjustment of business strategies.•Strategic alignment: provides a line of sight between corporate strategies and frontline operational improvement activities.•Change management: helps get employees ready, willing, and able to accept and embrace new ways of working.•Standardization: serves as a guideline for process analysts to devise best practices for high-level and basic processes.•Costing: assist with highlighting areas of waste as well as where process outputs do not justify investment.
2. Process Architecture Benefits•Automation opportunities: identify activities within processes that could be automated to reduce the burden on staff members and increase speed and efficiency.•Simplification: enables process architectures to highlight redundant and complicated processes.•Process visibility: provides the ability to view and analyze end-to-end processes individually and in the wider context of the enterprise.•Performance metrics: embeds key performance indicators within processes to provide immediate feedback on process performance.•Reduced cost: The automation of processes should result in reduced operational costs for the enterprise.
2 Process Architecture Benefits•Faster reactions: Simplification and increased automation should also result in quicker reaction to changing market conditions.•Impact prediction: offer managers insight into how processes interrelate and how modifications to any process may affect synchronized processes.•Training benefits: provide a visual representation of the processes and procedures of an enterprise and can be a powerful for training new or existing staff.
Process architecture designs and organizes business processes and related components into a unified structure and hierarchy.Architecting the business processes entails looking at it through various perspectives or viewpoints•Functional perspective: describes the processes themselves and their structures.•Data and dataflow perspective: describes which data (or documents) a process step consumes or produces•Behavioral perspective: describes the order in which processes must be executed.•Organizational perspective: defines persons or roles that are responsible for the execution of a given process.•Operational perspective: defines tools or systems that support the execution of a process.2.1 Process Perspectives
2.2 Process Views•An architectural view is a representation of a system from the perspective of a related set of concerns.•The architectural view concept offers a separation of concerns that has the potential to resolve the complexity challenges of a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) process.•Perspectives on business process and service interactions are used as central views, in which each of them represents a certain part of the processes and services.•A basic view is defined called the core view as a foundation for the other views.•Other views are defined by extending the core view.
2.2.1 The Core View•The core view is the place wherein the relationships among the views are maintained.•The core view provides a number of important abstract elements, specifically, View, Process, and Service.•At the heart of the core view isthe Viewelement that capturesthe architectural view concept.•Each specific view representsone perspective on a particularProcess.
•A Servicespecifies external functions that the Process provides or requires.•A viewacts as a container for view elements representing the objects which appear inside the Process.•The view that represents concerns of a business process are mostly derived from the core view.•The hierarchical structures in which those elements are roots can be used to define the integration points that are used to merge views.2.2.1 The Core View
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ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsInformation TechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402 Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 6Process Architecture
Required Reading1.Chapter 5 (Enterprise Process Management Systems: Engineering Process Centric Enterprise Systems using BPMN 2.0 by Vivek Kale)Recommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern-based approach (3rd ed.).
2.2.2 The Control-flow View•An Activityelement is the base class for other elements such as Sequence, Flow, and Switch.•Sequence: An activity is only enabled after the completion of another activity in the same sequence structure.•Flow: All activities of a flow structure are executed in parallel.•Switch: Only one of many alternative paths of control inside a switch structure is enabled according to a condition value.•A SimpleActivityelement represents a concrete action such as a service invocation, a data processing task, and so on.•The StructuredActivityelement is an abstract representation of a group of related activities.
2.2.3 The Collaboration View•The collaboration view extends the relationship between Processand Serviceelements in the core view.•The Serviceelement from the core view is extended by a specific Service element that exposes a number of Interfaces.•An Operationrepresents an action that might need some inputs and produces some outputs via correspondent Channels.•A Channelonly holds a reference to a Messageentity.•The ability and the responsibility of an interaction partner are modeled by the Roleelement.•These concepts are captured by using the PartnerLinkand the PartnerLinkTypeelements, as are their relationships with the Role element.•An interaction between the process and one of its partners is represented by the Interactionelement that associates with a particular PartnerLink.
2.2 The Control-flow (a) vs. Collaboration View (b)
2.2.4 The Information View•Involves the representation of data object flows inside the process and message objects traveling back and forth between the process and the external world.•Consists of a number of BusinessObjectselements.•Data flowing inside the process might go through some transformations that convert existing data to form new pieces of data.•The transformations are performed inside a DataHandlingobject.•The source or the target of a certain transformation is an ObjectReferenceentity that holds a reference to a particular BusinessObject.
•The Human view defines human roles and their relationships to the respective process and tasks.•It Process elements that require human interactions are called as Tasks.•It establishes a role-based abstraction.•This role-based abstraction can be used for role-based access control.•Role-based access control is administered through roles and role hierarchies that mirror an enterprise’s job positions and organizational structure.•Users are assigned membership into roles consistent with their duties, competency, and responsibility.2.2.5 The Human View
2.2 The Information (a) vs. Human (b) View(a)(b)
3. Reference Process Architecture: Workflow Systems•Workflowsare useful for the coordination of interrelated activities carried out by organization members in order to execute a business process.•A WfMSdefines, creates and manages the execution of workflows through the use of software, running on one or more workflow engines.•Workflowis defined, according to the WfMC, as the automation of a business process, in which documents, information, or tasks move from one participant to another in order to perform some actions in accordance with a set of procedure rules.•A distributed workflow is executed across an extended enterprise, in which different individuals participate in order to reach global objectives. •Collaborative process planning can be considered as a business process that can be managed using distributed workflows.
3.1 Basic Workflow Components / Basic Components of Workflow•Activity: A description of a piece of work that forms one logical step within a process.•Participant: A resource that performs the work represented by a workflow activity instance.•Role: A mechanism that associates participants to a collection of workflow activities.•Routing: A route defines the sequence of the steps that information must follow within a workflow.•Transitionrule: A transition rule is a logic expression that determines what actions need to be carried out, depending on the value of logic operators.•Event: An occurrence of a particular condition that causes the workflow management software to take one or more actions.•Deadline: A time-based scheduling constraint, which requires that a certain activity work be completed by a certain time.
3.2 Types of Workflow1.Administrative workflow: used to perform workflow processes with defined procedures, though not as structured as in the case of Production workflow, as each instance of the workflow can have a different amount of work associated with it.2.Production workflow: consists of highly automated workflow processes—the goal of a Production workflow is to automate the process as much as possible.3.Ad hoc workflow: implemented by a user to perform a string of actions that arise for a business scenario.4.Collaborative workflow: involves a team of people working together.
3.4 Workflow Perspectives1.Data or Informational Perspective:•Consists of data flow between workflow activities.•Each activity is assigned a set of input and a set of output parameters.•The transfer of data between workflow activities is known as data flow.•The modeling of data is required to permit workflow management systems to control the transfer of workflow relevant data as generated by workflow activities during workflow executions.•By providing graphic language constructs to represent data flow between activities, the informational perspective can be visualized and used to validate and optimize application processes.
3.4 Workflow Perspectives2. Context of Organizational Perspective:•WfMS requires information on the context that is organizational as well as on the technical environment in which the workflows will be executed.•Atomic workflows can be either automatic or manual.•Manual atomic workflows are executed by persons who may use application programs to do so.•automatic atomic workflows are executed by software systems without human involvement.•The role concept is defined dependent on the structure of an organization in which the workflow is executed.•When an activity is about to start, the system uses predefined role information to select people to perform the requested activity.
3.4 Workflow Perspectives3. Interaction or Operational Perspective:1.When persons are selected by role resolution to perform workflow activities.2.When a person chooses to perform an activity, then the defined application program is started and the input data as specified in the workflow model are transferred to that application program.3.When the person completes that activity, the output data generated by that activity are collected in the output parameters of the activity to be transferred by the WfMS to the next workflow activity, as specified in the respective workflow model.
3.4 Workflow Perspectives4. Processing or Functional and Behavioral Perspective:•The processing perspective covers the functional decomposition of activities as present in application processes.•It specifies which activities have to be executed within a workflow.•Workflows have a tree structure, where root node represents the top-level workflow, inner nodes represent other complex workflows, and leaf nodes represent bottom-level atomic activities.•The controlled execution of a complex workflow by a WfMS has to take into account interrelationships of the subworkflowscovered in the subordinate behavioral perspective.
4. Workflow Reference Model•The WRM divides the workflow system into five components:1.Process definition tool2.Workflow engine3.Workflow client application4.Invoked application5.Administration and monitoring tool•The WRM provides the following guidelines:•Common terminology for the workflow product category•WRM is the functional components necessary in a WfMS.•Interfaces that connect the various functional components
4. WRM Components and Interfaces
4.1 Workflow Process Definition Tool•The process definition tool is a design tool that allows the workflow designer to design and model the workflow process.•It provides a graphical interface for the process designer to graphically design the business process.•The result of the design activity is a workflow process model.•Once the workflow process model has been designed, the process definition tool creates an output of the model using a process definition language.•The workflow process that is included in the calling workflow process is called a subprocess and can be nested further.
4.1 Workflow Process Definition Tool•An activity is work performed by a specific resource.•The participants in a workflow process could be an explicitly named human user, a role defined in an organizational structure, a position that is part of the organizational unit, or an information system.•There are four generic flow control mechanisms: sequential, parallel, iteration, and nesting.•Transitiondefines the criteria for moving to the next activity and it is usually represented as a line from one activity to the next in the graphical workflow process model.•Transition can be of two types: conditionaland unconditional.
4.2 Workflow Client Application•Workflow client application is an application that requests services from the workflow engine including the retrieval of a worklist generated by the workflow engine for participants to execute.•The workflow engine generates the work items assigned to specific users, which are retrieved by the workplace portal and then displayed to each user for action. •The workflow client application would need to instantiate a workflow process instance, execute a work item, and update the worklist in the workflow engine as to the status of a particular work item.
4.3 Workflow Engine•The workflow engine is the runtime environment of the WfMS.•It creates process instances of the workflow process based on a trigger event for the creation of a workflow process instance.•An event is a predefined circumstance the workflow engine is listening for.•The trigger could be some status change of an application transaction.•When a workflow process instance is created, the workflow engine manages workflow relevant data throughout the life cycle of the workflow process instance.
4.4 Invoked Application•The workflow engine to perform work calls the invoked application.•The invoked application is the backend application that creates business transactions.•It is a system participant that usually performs a transaction as a result of the workflow process.•An example is the purchasing requisition process; an online request form completed by a human participant might trigger the process.•Once the workflow engine has received the purchase request form, the next activity in the workflow process is to create a purchase requisition in the backend ERP system.
4.5 Administration and Monitoring Tool•Allows system administrators to manage the WfMS users, roles, and resources. •Provides functions such as audit reporting, querying of process status, and updating active process instances.•Workflow engines store events and record updates to process instances in workflow logs.•The administration and monitoring tool retrieves workflow logs for process instances that have completed and instances that are still in progress.•These statistics provide data for process analysis, which lead to process improvements.
4.6 Workflow Reference Model Interfaces1.Interface 1 links the workflow process definition tool to the workflow engine.2.Interface 2 links the workflow client application to the workflow engine.3.Interface 3 connects the workflow engine to the business applications invoked during the processing of the workflow model.4.Interface 4 enables integration between heterogeneous workflow engines by providing a set of APIs that one WfMS can invoke on another.5.Interface 5 enables integration between workflow engines with the administration and monitoring tool.
Main Reference1.Chapter 5 (Enterprise Process Management Systems: Engineering Process Centric Enterprise Systems using BPMN 2.0 by Vivek Kale)Additional References1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern-based approach (3rd ed.)
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ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsInformation TechnologyIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402 Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 6 -Enterprise and Process Modeling
Contents1.Model and Types of Models2.Modeling and Modeling Ontology3.Requirements of Modeling4.Enterprise Modeling5.Process Modeling6.Process Description for Storing Business Process Models
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.Understand Enterprise Modeling and Process Modeling2.Modeling Ontology and recognizing various requirements of modeling3.Process Description for Storing Business Process Models
Required Reading1.Chapter 6: Enterprise Modeling. (Enterprise Process Management Systems: Engineering ProcessCentricEnterprise Systems using BPMN 2.0 by Vivek Kale) Recommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern based approach (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 007240429 (print), 9781308469676 (e-text).2.Enterprise Modeling: https://docs.oracle.com/search/?q=enterprise+modeling
Introduction: Enterprise Modeling
Introduction: Enterprise Modelling•Implementingprocess-orientedarchitectureshasproventobedifficultformanycompanies.•Implementingprocessconceptswithinorganizationsisonlyonesteptowardachievinganenterprise-widefocusonprocesses.•Processmanagementdealswiththeefficientandeffectiveexecutionofbusinessprocesses.
Introduction: Enterprise Modelling•Itconsistsoftheplanning,implementation,enactment,andcontrollingofprocessesandformsalifecyclethatleadstocontinuousprocessimprovement.•Thereisagapbetweenapproachesformodelingbusinessprocessesandthoseformodelinginformationsystems.•Thereisastrongneedforamethodologyforcreatingasupportinginformationsystemthatisbasedontheprocessarchitectureofanorganization.
1. Model•Amodelisaformofrepresentingsomething:itisnotareplicationbutratheranintentionalselectiveconstructionofanewthingorsystemthathasthepurposeofrepresentinganotherthingorsystem.•Nomodelisuniqueorexclusive,astherecanbeamultitudeofthem;furthermore,modelsaregenerallynotcorrectorincorrect—itisonlywhatitiswithreferencetothedefiningpurposeoftherespectivemodel.
1. Characteristics of a model CharacteristicDescriptionAbstraction:Amodelisareduceddescriptionofthesystem.Accuracy:Forthepropertiesofinterest,amodelprovidesatrue-to-liferepresentationofthesystem.Understandability:Removingdetailsthatareirrelevantforagivenvieworviewpointandspecifyinginaformthatisintuitiveenableseasierunderstandingoftheconcernedsystemproperties.Reasoning:Amodelhelpswithcorrectlyanalyzingandreasoningabouttheinterestingbutnonobviouspropertiesofthesystem,eitherthroughsometypeofformalanalysisorexperimentation(e.g.,bysimulatingthemodelonacomputer).Inexpensiveness:Amodelisdrasticallycheapertoconstructandanalyzethanthesystem.
1.1 Types of Models
1.1 Types of Models1.Descriptive:Adescriptivemodelisusedtodescribeormimicareal-worldphenomenonorsystem.Withadescriptivemodel,onecanreasonaboutthepropertiesorthebehaviorofthesystem.2.Prescriptive:Aprescriptivemodelisusedtodefinehowayet-to-be-builtsystemissupposedtobe.Prescriptivemodelsareadoptedaspartofso-calledforwardengineering.
1.1 Types of Models3.Structural:Astructuralmodelisfocusedonthestaticaspectsofasystem.Thesemodelsareusedfordescribingthecomponentsormodulesthatarepartofthesystem,sotheyserveforconceptualizingthesystemarchitecture.4.Behavioral:Abehavioralmodelemphasizesthedynamic,functional,andtemporalaspectsofthesystem.
1.1 Types of Models5.Symbolic:Thesemodelsaremuchmoreeasilychangedincomparisonwithphysicalmodels.Bymanipulatingandchangingthemathematicalrelationships,onecanseehowthemodelreactsandconsequentlyhowthesystemwouldreact.Thecreationofasymbolicmodelrequires:•Asetofsigns(orsymbols)•Asetofrulestooperateonthosesigns6.Physical:Typically,aphysicalmodelisasmallerrepresentationoftheoriginalobjectbut,sometimes,itcanbelargeriftheoriginalobjectistoosmallforhumans.
2. Modelling•Modelingistheprocessofidentifyingadequateconceptsandselectingadequateabstractionstoconstructamodelthatreflectsagivenuniverseofdiscourseappropriately.•Modelingpermitsthecost-effectiveuseofthemodelinplaceofthereal-worldobjectorprocessforsomepurpose,suchassimulation,constructioneffortestimation,andsoon.
2.1 Modelling Ontology•Anontologyisanexplicitrepresentationofasharedunderstandingoftheimportantconceptsinsomedomainofinterest.•Ontologiesarerepresentedbyconceptualmapsthatconstituteasimpleandwell-knownformoforganizationalknowledge.•Thisontologyconsiderstwodifferentseparateperspectives:•Reverseengineering•Forwardengineering
2.1 Modelling Ontology•Reverseengineeringemploysdescriptivemodelstomodelanexistingsystem.Reverseengineeringisaprocessofanalysisinwhichthesystemisseenbymeansofamodel.•Forwardengineeringemploysprescriptivemodelsformodelingtheenvisagedsystem.Forwardengineeringisaprocessofsynthesiswhereinthesystemisdevelopedstartingfromamodel.
3. Requirements of Modelling3.1DomainModels•Adomainmodelconstitutesadescriptionofthecommonpropertiesandvariablesofthedomainrelatedtothesystemthatisbeingdeveloped.•Thismodelrepresentsthethings(entitiesorevents)thatexistinthatdomain;thatis,itisaconceptualreferenceoftheproblemdomain.•Thedomainmodelexpressesenduringtruthsabouttheuniversethatisrelevanttothesystemathand,including:•Adefinitionofthescopeofthatdomain,providingexamplesofsystemsorgenericrulesofinclusion•Avocabularyofthedomain(i.e.,theglossarywiththeprincipalterms)•Amodelofconceptsthatidentifiesandrelatestheconceptsofthatdomain
3. Requirements of Modelling3.2UseCaseModels•Ausecasemodeldefinestheboundariesofthesystemwithintheenvironmentandspecifiesthefunctionalitiesprovidedbythesystem.•Ausecasemodelisrelatedtooneormorerequirements:themostcomplexusecasesareassociatedwithmanyrequirements,whilstthesimplestonesarerelatedtofewernumbersofrequirements.•Usecasemodelsarerepresentedbyusecasediagramsconsistingof:•Usecases(representedbyellipses)•Actors(representedbystylizedhumanfigures)
3. Requirements of Modelling3.3ClassModels•Classmodelsareanessentialpartoftheobject-orientedparadigm;classmodelsarenecessarytoindicatetheexistingclassesandtheirrelations.•Eachclassisdividedintothreeparts:•Thetoppartisusedtoindicatetheclassname•Thecentralpartindicatestheclassattributes•Thebottompartliststheclassoperations•Thenameismandatory,buttheotherpartscanbeomitted.•UMLbasicallyconsidersfourtypesofrelationsbetweenobjectsthatcanbeshownbetweentheclassesintherespectivediagrams.
3. Requirements of Modelling3.4InteractionModels•Aninteractionmodelisusedforrepresentinganinstanceofausecase.•Interactionmodelsdescribehowagroupofobjectscommunicate.•oneofinteractionmodelstoberepresentedhereisasequencediagram.•Sequencemodelsareusedtodescribethebehaviorofthesystem.•Theprincipalelementsofsequencediagramsare:•Asindicatedbythetemporalaxis,thediagramisreadfromtoptobottom•Textualannotationsarelocatedontheleftsideofthediagramtoidentifyinitialconditions,actions,andactivities.•Eventidentifiers:Nearamessage•Forreal-timesystemsthatareconsciousoftimerestrictions,timingmarkscanbeused,withtheavailableoptions•Statemarks:Thesecanbeaddedtothesequencediagrams
3. Requirements of Modelling3.5StateModels•Statediagramscanbeusedfordefiningthe(dynamic,temporal)behaviorofaclass(i.e.,itsinstances).•statediffersfromotherstatesinthefollowing:•Theeventsitaccepts•Thetransitionsittakesasaresultoftheacceptedevents•Theactionsitperforms•Atransitionisaresponsetoaneventthatcausesastatechange.•Statemachinesareusedwhenatransitionbetweenstatesoccurs,mainlyasananswertosignificantevents.•Statemachinesextendthemostconventionaldiagramsalongthreeaxesrelatedtohierarchy,concurrency,andcommunication.
3. Requirements of Modelling3.6ActivityModels•Activitymodelsareusefultorelatethecontrolflowamongtheactivitiesofagivenbusinessprocess.•Thesemodelsaddressbehavioralaspectsofthesystemsorentitiesunderconsideration.•Thesemodelsareappropriatewhenthebehaviorchangeoccurs,mainlyduetotheendoftheaction/activityexecutedandnottotheoccurrenceofevents,asisthecasewithstatemodels.
4. Enterprise Modelling•Enterprisemodelingistheprocessofcreatinganintegratedenterprisemodelthatcapturestheaspectsoftheenterpriserequiredforthemodelingpurposeathand.•Enterprisemodelingcanberepresentedby:•Textualrepresentation•Spreadsheetrepresentation•Graphicrepresentationwithouttheuseofaspecificnotation•Graphicrepresentationwiththeuseofaspecificnotation
4.1 Enterprise Model Components•Avisualmodelconsistsofsymbolsintheformofgeometricshapessuchasrectanglesandellipsesandthelinesconnectingthem(e.g.,arrows).•Thesymbolsarereferredtoasmodelcomponentsandtheconnectionsasrelationships.•Manymodelinglanguagessupportviewsandlevelstoenablereductionofthecomplexityoftherepresentation.
4.2 Enterprise Knowledge Development•Anenterprisemodelconsistsofanumberofrelated“submodels,”eachdescribingtheenterprisefromaparticularperspective.•Enterpriseknowledgedevelopmentisanexampleofatypicalenterprisemodelingthatincludesanoverallmodelcomposedofinter-relatedsubmodelsforintegratingdifferentviewsoftheorganization.•Enterpriseknowledgedevelopmentiscomposedofsixintegratedsubmodelsfocusingonadifferentaspectoftheenterprise.
4.2 Enterprise Knowledge Development
5. Process Modelling•Abusinessprocessmodelistheresultofmappingabusinessprocess.•Thisbusinessprocesscanbeeitherareal-worldbusinessprocessasperceivedbyamodeleroraconceptualizedbusinessprocess.•Businessprocessmodelingisthehumanactivityofcreatingabusinessprocessmodel.•Businessprocessmodelinginvolvesanabstractionfromthereal-worldbusinessprocessbecauseitservesacertainmodelingpurpose.•Abusinessprocessmodelinglanguagecanbespecifiedusingametamodel.
5.1 Process Modelling Languages•Event-DrivenProcessChains(EPC)•EPCwasdevelopedbyAugust-WilhelmScheeraspartoftheArchitectureofIntegratedInformationSystemsframework.•AnEPCmodeldescribesabusinessprocessintermsofaseriesoffunction-basedtransformationsbetweenasetofinputeventsandasetofoutputevents.•AnEPCmodeltakestheformofadirectedgraph,whichalwaysstartsandendswithevents.•Forthedefinitionofcomplexroutingrules,therearethreekindsofconnectortypes:AND(symbol∧),OR(symbol∨),andXOR(symbol×)
5.2 Business Process Modelling Notation•BPMNisanExtensibleMarkupLanguage-basedlanguagefordefiningbusinessprocesseswithaformalmetamodelandanassociatedgraphicalnotation.•BPMNversion2.0.2isdesignedtobeutilizedas:•High-level,graphicalbusinessmodelinglanguage(withalimitedrangeofmodellingconstructs).•Detailedgraphicalmodelinglanguage(withacomprehensiverangeofmodellingconstructs).•Executablebusinessprocesslanguage,capturingsufficientdetailsaboutthecontrol-flow,data,andresourceaspectsofabusinessprocesssothatitcanbedirectlyexecutedbyabusinessprocessengine.
6. Process Description for Storing Business Process Models•Modelingofprocessesisacomplexandtime-consumingtaskthatcanbesimplifiedbythereuseofprocessmodels.•Arepositoryis,therefore,necessarytostoreandmanageprocessmodels.•IntheUniversalProcessRepository,processdefinitionsexistattwolevels:theuserlevelandtherepositorylevel.•Atthislevel,abusinessprocessismodeledbyusinggraphicalconstructsofaprocessmodelinglanguagesuchasBPMNorEPC.
6. Process Description for Storing Business Process Models•Thereareseveralprocessmodelinglanguages(e.g.,EPCandBPMN)thatcanbeusedformodelingbusinessprocesses.•InordertoprovidesupportfordifferentmodelinglanguagesintheUniversalProcessRepository,acommonformatforstoringandsharingprocessmodelsisneeded,whereinthecommonformatonlystoresfundamentalelementsofprocessmodels.•Theconcreteelementsareobtainedbyemployingthefollowingfourperspectives:•Functionalperspective•Behavioralperspective•Organizationalperspective•Informationalperspective
Summary•Amodelrepresentsinasimplifiedwaytherealityforagivenpurpose,emphasizingsomeelementsandignoringothers.•Modelscanbecharacterizedaccordingtothreedimensions:representativeness(e.g.,prescriptive,descriptive);perspective(e.g.,behavioral,structural);andform(e.g.,symbolic,physical).•Anontologythatintroducesrelevantconceptsrelatedtomodelingandpermitsonetodistinguishandassociateconceptslikemodel,specification,description,diagram,language,andnotation.•Severalfrequently-usedbusinessprocessmodelinglanguagesincludingEPCsandBPMN.
Main Reference1.Chapter 6 (Enterprise Modeling by Vivek Kale)This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
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ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402–Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 8 -Business Process Management Systems
Contents1.Process-OrientedEnterprise2.HistoryofBusinessProcessManagement3.BusinessProcessLifeCycle4.ConceptofBusinessProcessManagement5.BusinessProcessManagement6.ManagementbyCollaboration7.BusinessProcessMaturityModel,8.BusinessProcessManagementSystems9.EnterpriseProcessManagementSystems
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.Understand Process-Oriented Enterprise and History of Business Process Management2.Recognize Business Process Life Cycle3.Understand Concept of Business Process Management4.Understand Management by Collaboration, Business Process Maturity Model and Enterprise Process Management Systems
Required Reading1.Chapter 10: Business Process Management SystemsRecommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern based approach (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 007240429 (print), 9781308469676 (e-text).2.What is BPM (Business Process Management)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XtvIU0ZCwjEThis Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Introduction:Business Process Management Systems
Intro: Business Process Management Systems•Informationtechnologycanfulfillitsroleasastrategicdifferentiatoronlyifitcanprovideenterpriseswithamechanismtoenablesustainablecompetitiveadvantagefortheabilitytochangebusinessprocessesinsyncwithchangesinthebusinessenvironmentandatoptimumcosts.•Theservicessupportalayerofagileandflexiblebusinessprocessesthatcanbeeasilychangedtoprovidenewproductsandservicestokeepaheadofthecompetition.
1. Process-Oriented Enterprise•Enterprisesystems(ES)enableanorganizationtotrulyfunctionasanintegratedenterprise,withintegrationoccurringacrossallfunctionsorsegmentsofthetraditionalvaluechain,forexample•Sales•Production•Inventory•Purchasing•financeandaccounting•Personnelandadministration.
1. Process-Oriented Enterprise –Cont. •Collaborationsorrelationshipsmanifestthemselvesthroughthevariousorganizationalandinterorganizationalprocesses.•Aprocessmaybegenerallydefinedasthesetofresourcesandactivitiesnecessaryandsufficienttoconvertsomeformofinputintosomeformofoutput.•Processesareinternal,external,oracombinationofboth.Theyhavecrossfunctionalboundaries,startingandendingpoints,andtheyexistatalllevelswithintheenterprise.
1. Process-Oriented Enterprise–Cont. •Value-AddedDrivenEnterprise•Businessprocessescanbeseenastheverybasisofthevalueadditionwithinanenterprisethatwastraditionallyattributedtovariousfunctionsordivisionsinanenterprise.•Theunderstandingofvalue-addingandnon-value-addingprocessesisasignificantfactorintheanalysis,design,benchmarking,andoptimizationofbusinessprocessesleadingtobusinessprocessmanagement(BPM)inthecompanies.•BPMprovidesanenvironmentforanalyzingandoptimizingbusinessprocesses.
1. Process-Oriented Enterprise –Cont. •Value-AddedDrivenEnterprise•Valuesarecharacterizedbyvaluedeterminants,forexample:•Time(cycletimeandsoon)•Flexibility(options,customization,composition,andsoon)•Responsiveness(leadtime,numberofhand-offs,andsoon)•Quality(rework,rejects,yield,andsoon)•Price(discounts,rebates,coupons,incentives,andsoon)•Theeffectofcostistrulyaresultofahostofvaluedeterminantssuchastime,flexibility,andresponsiveness.
1. Process-Oriented Enterprise –Cont. •Value-AddedDrivenEnterprise•Thenatureandextentofavalueadditiontoaproductorserviceisthebestmeasureofthataddition’scontributiontothecompany’soverallgoalforcompetitiveness.Suchvalueexpectationsaredependentonthefollowing:•Thecustomer’sexperienceofsimilarproduct(s)and/orservice(s)•Thevaluedeliveredbythecompetitors•Thecapabilitiesandlimitationsoflockingintothebasetechnologicalplatform
2. History of Business Process Management•First-WaveBusinessProcessManagement—ProcessImprovement(1970s–1980s)•Second-WaveBusinessProcessManagement—ProcessRedesignandReengineering(1990s)•Third-WaveBusinessProcessManagement—ProcessesinConstantChange(2000s)•Fourth-WaveBusinessProcessManagement—Process-BasedCompetitiveAdvantage(2010s)•Fifth-WaveBusinessProcessManagement—Process-DrivenStrategy(2020s)
3. Business Process Life CycleFigure 10.1: Business process life cycle
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont.•Design:Thisphasetypicallyinvolvescapturingtheoperationaldetailsoftheprocessusingsomeformofmodelingnotation.Ideally,sufficientdetailsoftheprocessarerecordedtofacilitateitsdirectenactment;however,thisreliesontheuseofanexecutablemodelingformalism,suchasthatprovidedbyaworkflowoffering.•Generally,thedesigniscapturedusingnotationssuchasBPMN,event-drivenprocesschains,orUnifiedModelingLanguageactivitydiagrams,andittakestheformofaconceptualprocessmodel.
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont.•ThebusinessprocesslifecyclecommenceswiththeDesignphase,inwhichsurveysonthebusinessprocessesandtheirorganizationalandtechnicalenvironmentsareconducted.•Businessprocessmodelingtechniquesaswellasvalidation,simulation,andverificationtechniquesareusedduringthisphase.•Businessprocessesinvolvingmultipleparticipantsplayanincreasingroletofosterthecollaborationbetweenenterprises.
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont. •Configuration:Oncethebusinessprocessmodelisdesignedandverified,thebusinessprocessneedstobeimplemented.•Forthis,thesystemneedstobeconfiguredaccordingtotheorganizationalenvironmentoftheenterpriseandthebusinessprocesseswhoseenactmentitshouldcontrol.•ThisconfigurationincludestheinteractionsoftheemployeeswiththesystemaswellastheintegrationoftheexistingsoftwaresystemswiththeBPMS.
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont. •Thebusinessprocesscanbeimplementedvia:•Asetofpoliciesandproceduresthattheemployeesoftheenterpriseneedtocomplywith.Inthiscase,abusinessprocesscanberealizedwithoutanysupportbyadedicatedBPMS.•Adedicatedsoftwaresystem.ThebusinessprocessmodelisenhancedwithtechnicalinformationthatfacilitatestheenactmentoftheprocessbytheBPMS.
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont. •ThestandardarchitectureforaBPMSconsistsoftwomainparts:•ABPMSengine,whichhandlestheexecutionofabusinessprocessonacentralizedbasisandmanagesthecurrentprocessstate,workingdata,workdistribution,andsoonforeachprocessinstancethatisinitiated.•Aworklisthandlerforeachuserwhoisinvolvedinaprocess,whichadvisesthemoftheworkthatneedstobeundertakenandprovidesthemwiththeopportunitytointeractwiththeBPMSengineforadvisementoftheirworkpreferencesandmanagementoftheschedulingandcompletionofworktowhichtheyhavecommitted.
3. Business Process Life Cycle –Cont. •Enactment:Oncethesystemconfigurationphaseiscompleted,businessprocessinstancesarereadytobeenacted.Businessprocessinstancesareinitiatedtofulfillthebusinessgoalsofacompanyandtypicallyfollowadefinedevent—forinstance,thereceiptofanordersentbyacustomer.•Monitoringandevaluation:Thisphaseusestheinformationavailabletomonitor,evaluate,andimprovebusinessprocessmodelsandtheirimplementation.Executionlogsareevaluatedusingbusinessactivitymonitoringandprocessminingtechniques.
4. Concept of Business Process Management•BPMaddressesthefollowingtwoimportantissuesforanenterprise:•Thestrategiclong-termpositioningofthebusinesswithrespecttobothcurrentandenvisagedcustomers,whichwillensurethattheenterprisewillbecompetitivelyandfinanciallysuccessfulbothlocallyandglobally.•Theenterprise’scapability/capacity,whichisthetotalityofalloftheinternalprocessesthatdynamicallyrealizethispositioningofthebusiness.•Traditionally,positioninghasbeenconsideredasanindependentsetoffunctionaltaskssplitwithinthemarketing,finance,andstrategicplanningfunctions.
4. Concept of Business Process Management –Cont. •Thetraditionalmanagementstructuresconditionmanagerstoputfunctionalneedsabovethoseofthemultifunctionalprocessestowhichtheirfunctionscontribute.Thisresultsinthefollowing:•Variousdepartmentscompetingforresources•Collectivefailureinmeetingorexceedingcustomers’expectations•Aninabilitytocoordinateandcollaborateonmultifunctional,customer-centricprocessesthatwouldtrulyprovidecompetitivedifferentiationinfuturemarkets•Thetraditionalmass-marketingtypeoforganizationworkswellforresearchingmarketopportunities,planningtheoffering(s),andschedulingallofthestepsrequiredtoproduceanddistributetheoffering(s)tothemarketplace.
4. Concept of Business Process Management –Cont. •Positioningleadstohigherlevelsofrevenuethroughincreasingthesizeofthemarket,retainingfirst-timecustomers,increasingthesizeofthewalletshare,andsoon.Positioninghastodowithfactorssuchas:•Comprehendingcustomerneeds•Understandingcompetitorinitiatives•Determiningthebusiness’financialneeds•Conformingwithlegalandregulatoryrequirements•Heedingenvironmentalconstraints
4. Concept of Business Process Management –Cont. •Thecapability/capacityhastobealignedwiththepositioningorelseithastobechangedtodeliverthepositioning.Capability/capacityhastodowithinternalfactors,including:•Keybusinessprocesses•Proceduresandsystems•Competencies,skills,training,andeducation•Abusinessprocessistypicallyacoordinatedandlogicallysequencedsetofworkactivitiesandassociatedresourcesthatproducesomethingofvaluetoacustomer.
5. Business Process Management•BPMreferstoactivitiesperformedbyenterprisesto:•design(captureprocessesanddocumenttheirdesignintermsofprocessmaps)•model(definebusinessprocessesinacomputerlanguage)•execute(developsoftwarethatenablestheprocess)•monitor(trackindividualprocessesforperformancemeasurement)•optimize(retrieveprocessperformanceforimprovement)•BPMapproachesbasedonITenablesupportorautomatebusinessprocesses,inwholeorinpart,byprovidingcomputer-basedsystemssupport.
5. Business Process Management –Cont. •ScenariossuitableforconsideringtheapplicationofBPMwithinvariousareasincludethefollowing:•Management•Customers/suppliers/partners•Productandservices•Organization•BusinessprocessesmaybecomecandidatesforBPMbecauseofthefollowing:•Lackofprocessstandardization•Lackofclearprocessgoalsorobjectives
6. Management by Collaboration (MBC)•Companieshavelearnedtoeffectivelyreengineerthemselvesintoflatterorganizations,withcloserintegrationacrossthetraditionalfunctionalboundariesoftheenterprise.•Thedominantthemeofthisnewsystemofmanagementwithsignificantimplicationsonorganizationaldevelopmentiscollaboration.•ES,especiallyBPMsystems,aremajorinstrumentsforrealizingMBC-drivenenterprises.
6. Management by Collaboration (MBC) –Cont. •MBCisanapproachtomanagementprimarilyfocusedonrelationships.Relationshipsbytheirverynaturearenotstaticandareconstantlyinevolution.•MBCprovidesaframeworkfordealingeffectivelywiththeissuesofperformanceimprovement,capabilitydevelopment,andadaptationtothechangingenvironment.
6. Management by Collaboration (MBC) –Cont. •ThebeautyandessenceofMBCarethatitincorporatesinitsveryfabricthebasicurgeofhumansforapurposeinlife;formutuallybeneficialrelationships;formutualcommitment;andforbeinghelpfultootherbeings—thatis,forcollaborating.•Becauseoftheenhancedroleplayedbytheindividualmembersofanenterpriseinanyrelationshiporprocess,MBCpromotesnotonlytheirmotivationandcompetencebutalsodevelopsthecompetitivenessandcapabilityoftheenterprisesasawhole.
6. Management by Collaboration (MBC) –Cont. •Peopleinteams,representingdifferentfunctionalunits,aremotivatedtoworkwithintheconstraintsoftimeandresourcestoachieveadefinedgoal.•Increasingly,companiesarepopulatedwithworker-teamsthathavespecialskills,operatesemiautonomously,andareanswerabledirectlytopeersandtotheendcustomers.•Consequently,inthepastfewyears,anewtypeofnonhierarchicalnetworkorganizationwithdistributedintelligenceanddecentralizeddecision-makingpowershasbeenevolving.
7. Business Process Maturity Model•Inmodernenterprises,theimplementationofprocessmanagementinvolvesthedescription,regulation,updating,andimprovementofbusinessprocesssystemsandtheorganizationalstructureinordertoensurethestabilityandreproducibilityoftheresults.•Assessmentsdepicthowtheorganizationcomparesitselftoitscompetitorsorotherorganizations;suchalsohelpstomanageanorganizationandevolveittowardshighercompetence.
7. Business Process Maturity Model –Cont. •Almostallmaturitymodelsdefinefivelevelsofincreasingmaturity,asfollows:•Level1:InitialOrganizations(Undisciplined,Individualistic,Inconsistent,Inefficient,andStagnant)•Level2:ManagedOrganizations(Committed,Proactive,Managed,Repeatable,Responsible)•Level3:StandardizedOrganizations(Organizational,Established,Adaptable,Leveraged,andProfessional)•Level4:PredictableOrganizations(Quantitative,Stable,Empowered,Multifunctional,andPredictable)•Level5:OptimizingOrganizations(Proactive,Systematic,Continual,Aligned,andPreventive)
7. Business Process Maturity Model –Cont. Figure 10.3: Levels of process maturity.
8. Business Process Management Systems•BPMStechnologyallowsthebusinessanalysttocollaboratemorecloselywithITpeopleinimplementingprojects.•ThevarioustoolsBPMSofferprovideanewparadigmforhowsolutionscanbeimplemented.•Organizationsarenolongertiedtothebusinessprocessesingrainedintheirbusinessapplications.
8. Business Process Management Systems –Cont. •OneofthemajoradvantagesofBPMSovertraditionalIT-enabledbusinessprocessimprovementeffortsisthatBPMSbringsITclosertothebusinessprocessowners.•BPMSisabletobridgethegapbyallowingbusinessprocessownerstobedirectlyinvolvedindesigningtheITsolution.•BPMStypicallyincludeagraphicalprocessdesignertoolthatenablesthedesignofprocessesbyprocessownersandbusinessanalysts.
8. Business Process Management Systems –Cont. •Tohelpthebusinessprocessownersandbusinessanalystsintheprocessdesign,BPMSincludeprocesssimulationandmodelingfunctionality.•BMPSenabletheapplicationofpredictiveandprescriptiveanalytics.Simulationplaysalargeroleasthesupervisorysystemsthatoverseethebusinessprocessesoncetheyhavebeenimplemented.•BPMSgiveorganizationstheabilitytoimplementreal-timeprocessimprovementwithouttheextensiveprocessconversioneffort.
8. Business Process Management Systems –Cont. •BPMSProductsExample:•CordysBPMS:CordysBPMSwasdevelopedbyCordys,whichwasaDutchvendorwhospecializedinBPM.CordysBPMSwastakenoverbyOpenText(Waterloo,Canada)andisnowcalledOpenTextProcesssuite.•OracleBPMSuite:OracleBPMSuiteisdevelopedbyOracle(RedwoodCity,CA,USA),whowasoriginallyadatabasesdeveloper.OracleenteredtheBPMmarketaftertheacquisitionofBEA.•IBMWebSphereBPMSuite:TheIBMWebSphereBPMsuiteisdevelopedbyIBMCorporation(Armonk,NY,USA),whichisoriginallyacomputermanufacturerwithalongtraditionintheserversmarket.
8. Business Process Management Systems –Cont. FIGURE 10.4: Radar chart with the evaluation results of the three BPM suites.
9. Enterprise Process Management Systems•EPMSpromoteaworld-viewofprocess-drivenorprocess-centricsystemssupportedbyaportfolioofsystemslikeprocessbases,processwarehouses,processintelligence,andprocessanalytics.•Thus,insteadofthefunctional-orientedmodulesofthetraditionalITsystems,theenterprisesystemsshouldbereplacedwithinformationsystemprocessbases(PBMS)thatmanagebusinessprocessesbyenabling.
Summary•Thechapterstartedwithrecapitulatingtheconceptofprocess-orientedenterpriseandintroducedasnapshotofthehistoryofBPM.•Itthendiscussedthebusinessprocesslifecycleconstitutingofdesign,configuration,enactmentandmonitoring,andevaluation.•DistinguishingbetweenBPMasabusinessprogramandBPMSasitssubsetrealizationintoasoftwareapplication,thechapterintroducestheconceptofBPManditscharacteristics.
Summary•BPMSenablethereconciledi.e.,collaborativeworkingofdifferentcross-companystakeholdersofanybusinessprocess,activity,ordecisionincompliancewithitsstrategy,policy,andprocedures.AfterintroducingtheconceptofBPM,thechapterdescribedtheBPMmethodologyindetail.•ThechapterlookedatMBCasaunifyingframeworkinthecontextofthecustomer-centricandcustomer-responsiveenterprise.AfterpresentingtheProcessMaturityModel,itthenexplainstheconceptofBPMSandtheirvariation,EPMS.
Main Reference1.Chapter 10 (Enterprise Modeling by Vivek Kale)This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
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College ofComputingandInformaticsIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 9-Business Process Modelingand Notation -Part2
Contents4.SamplePurchasingScenarioRepresentedinBusinessProcess Modelingand Notation5.Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses6.Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling
WeeklyLearningOutcomes1.UnderstandSamplePurchasingScenarioRepresentedin BusinessProcessModeling andNotation2.UnderstandtheCharacteristicsofBusinessProcessModeling andNotationforModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses3.UnderstandSpreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling
RequiredReading1.Chapter11:BusinessProcessModelingandNotation RecommendedReading1.Dunn,C.,Cherrington,J.,&Hollander,A.(2005).Enterpriseinformation systems:Apatternbasedapproach(3rded.).NewYork:McGrawHill HigherEducation.ISBN:007240429(print),9781308469676(e-text).2.BusinessProcessModelandNotation(BPMN)Tutorial https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxd19GDrnVYThisPresentationismainlydependentonthetextbook:EnterpriseProcessManagementSystemsbyVivekKale
BusinessProcessModelingandNotation Part2
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation•ThebasicstructureandelementsinaBPMNprocessmodelcanbeillustratedbyusingapurchasingscenarioasanexample.Theexamplepurchasingscenariocanbedescribedasfollows:•Inacompany,anemployeeneedsacertaincommodity(e.g.,aprintercartridge).Inordertogetthatproduct,arequisitionformmustbefilledoutandsubmittedtothewarehouse.•Thewarehousewillcheckwhethertheproductisavailableinstock.Ifitisavailable,thenthewarehousedispatchestheproducttotheemployee.
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. •Otherwise,theproductmustbepurchasedfromanexternalsupplier.Inthiscase,theitemisnotavailablein-house,sothepurchasingdepartmentpreparesapurchaseorderandsendsittoasupplier.•Thesupplierconfirmstheorderanddeliverstheproductdirectlytothewarehouse.•Thewarehousereceivestheproduct,whichincludesupdatingthestock,anddispatchesthe producttotheemployeewhooriginallysubmitted the request.
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. •Thecorresponding processmodelusing BPMNisshownbelowfigure.•Itconsistsoftwoentities:•thecompanyand•thesupplier•Representedby:•A “purchaseprocess”pool,whichissubdividedintothreeorganizationalunitsrepresentedby•Anemployeeswimlanecorrespondingtotheemployeewhorequeststheproduct•Awarehouseswimlanecorrespondingtothewarehousethatstorestheproduct•Apurchasedepartmentswimlanecorrespondingtothedepartmentthatprocessesthepurchaseoftheproduct•A“supplier”pool,whichisleftblankbecausenothingisknownabouttheinternalbehaviorofthesupplierotherthanthefactthatitreceivesthepurchaseorderandreturnsanorderconfirmation
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. Figure 11.1: Sample purchase scenario model using BPMN.
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. •Infigure11.1,thereisasplittingexclusivegateway,butthereisnomatchingmerge.Thisispossiblebecausebothpathseventuallyleadtoanendevent,sothereisnoneedtomergethembacktoacommonflow.•TheswimlaneisaplaceholderforBPMNflowconstructs,suchastheactivities,gateways,andeventsdescribedearlier.•Theswimlaneisameanstoassignresponsibilityforcertaintaskstoagivenorganizationalunit;whateverisplacedinsideaswimlaneisassumedtohappenwithinthecontextofthatorganizationalunit.
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. •Theprocessbeginsinthe“employee”swimlanewithastartevent.Thefirstactivitythatappearsafterthestarteventis“fillinrequisition.”•Thisactivityisthenfollowedby“checkproductavailability,”whichisperformedbythewarehouse,onadifferentswimlane.Thewarehousecheckstheinventoryanddeterminesthequantityavailablefortherequestedproduct.
4. Sample Purchasing Scenario Represented in Business Process ModelingandNotation-Cont. •Ifthedispatchactivityisseenasbeingexactlythesameinbothpaths,thentheprocesscanberedesignedasshowninthefigure.Here,iftheproductisavailableinthewarehouse,thentheprocessproceedsimmediatelyto“dispatchproduct”;otherwise,theproductmustbeorderedfirstandonlythendispatchedtotheemployee.Figure 11.2: Modified sample purchase scenario model using BPMN.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses•Withtheincreasingdemandsregardingflexibilityandadaptabilityofdevelopmentprocesses,theconstantevolutionofdevelopmentmethodsandtools,andthetrendtowardcontinuousproductdeployment,bettersupportforprocessengineersintermsofuniversallyapplicablemodelingnotationsaswellassimulationandenactmentmechanismshasbecomemoredesirablethanever.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses–Cont. •Thedisciplineofbusinessprocessmodelinghasattainedagreaterlevelofconsensusandstandardization,leadingmostnotablytotheBPMNidea.ThesuccessofBPMNasastandardbusinessprocessmodelingnotationconcepthaspromptedthequestionofwhetherBPMNcouldalsobeusedformodelingsoftwareengineeringprocesses.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses–Cont. •BPMNreliesonthefollowingthreefundamentalassumptionsthat affectitsscopeofapplicability:•Aprocessconsistsofasetofisolatedprocessinstances(alsocalledcases)thatinteractwitheachotherinverylimitedways.•Aninstanceisasequenceofactivitiesthattransformobjectsassociatedwiththeinstancealongthewayfromastartstatetoanendstate(possiblyamongmultiplepossibleendstates).•Eachatomicactivitytaskisanatomicunitofworkperformedbyasingleactor.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses–Cont. 5.1 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationStrengths•Modelingcontrolflows:BPMNisarmedwithspecialtypesofgatewaysthatallowonetocapturecomplexsynchronizationconditions•Modelingeventsandmessages:anotherdistinguishingfeatureofBPMNisitsrichnessofeventtypes,whichrangefromthetimerandmessageeventstoconditionalevents,escalationevents,compensationevents,anderrorevents.•Modelingexecutableprocess:BPMNisdesignedtoalsosupporttheenactmentofbusinessprocessesviaso-calledexecutableBPMNmodels.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses–Cont. 5.2 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationWeaknesses•ThefollowingaresomeoftheinherentlimitationsofBPMNthathinder capturingsoftwareprocesses:•Modelingresources:BPMNisratherlimitedin theresourceperspective.•Modelingdata:BPMNisalsosomewhatlimitedalongwiththedataperspective.Inthedataperspective,BPMNprimarilyreliesontheconceptofadataobject,meaningalounitofdatathatcanbereadbyorcreatedormodifiedbyataskoranevent.•Modeling“intotality”:AmorefundamentallimitationofBPMNthathampersitsuseforsoftwareprocessmodelingisitsinherentfocusonbusinessprocessesconsistingofisolatedinstances.
5. Characteristics of Business Process Modeling and Notation for ModelingSoftwareEngineeringProcesses–Cont. 5.3 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationDrawbacks•BPMNdoesnotprovideamechanismthatwouldallowonetolinkthecompletionofonetasktoaconditiononthedataobjectsmanipulatedbytheprocess.•ItisnotpossibletoexpressinBPMNthatthenormalcompletionofataskisdeterminedbyagivenconditionbecomingtrue.•Inotherwords,thecompletionofataskinaBPMNprocesshastobeexplicitlysignaledbytheresourceperformingthetaskandcannotbeautomaticallydeterminedbasedonthecurrentstateofthedataobjectsintheprocess.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling•GraphicalprocessmodelnotationssuchastheBPMNprovideestablishedandsuccessfulwaysforthespecificationordocumentationofintendedorexistingprocesses.•InordertoclosethegapbetweenBPMmethodexpertsanddomainexperts,otherrepresentationsofaprocessmodelthataresimpler,suchasspreadsheets,canbehelpful.•Spreadsheetsofferasimpleand(especiallyinbusiness)well-knownwaytoorganizedatainrowsandcolumns.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling –Cont. •Transformationsbetweengraphicalnotationandspreadsheetshavetobedefined.•Inordertoreallyclosethegapbetweenprocessanddomainexperts,thetransformationalgorithmswillhavetobeusedinasynchronizationmechanismthatenablesamodeltoroundtripbetweenbothoftheworlds.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling –Cont. 6.1 ProcessModelTransformationsintoSpreadsheets•Therearedifferentapproachestomodelingprocessesusingspreadsheetsthatdependontheenvisageddegreeoffidelity.•Thesimplesequenceapproach.Astheexistingtoolsaremostlyforbusinessprocessmethodexpertsasusers,thisfirstapproachtriestobeassimpleaspossible:onlythemodelingofsequencesofactivitiesissupported.Activitieshaveanumberofpropertytypesthatcanbeassignedonceorseveraltimesperactivity.Thesemultipleassignmentsofpropertiesarenecessary,e.g.,foractivitiesthathavetwoinputdataobjects.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling –Cont. 6.1ProcessModelTransformationsintoSpreadsheets–Cont.•Thebranchingapproach.Thisapproachaddssomenewelementsand,moreimportantly,asuccessorpropertytoeachelementtoaddressprocessmodelsthatcontainnotonlysequencesbutalsocomplexcontrolflowstructures.Inordertosupportbranchingandjoiningwithinonemodel,gatewaysandeventsarenecessary.•Theadditionalpropertiesapproach.Theearlierapproachstillhasnosupporttospecifyproperties,forexampleofaninputdocumentoranassignedrole.Asmentionedbefore,thisisduetothefactthatallofthoseelementsarejustrepresentedbysimplestrings.Thiscanbemendedbyenablingelementslikedataobjectstoberepresentedbyrowsthatarelinkedtoactivitiesinamannersimilartothecontrolflow,whichlinkstwocontrolflowelements.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling –Cont. 6.2 ProcessModelTransformations•Inordertobenefitfromtheestablishedtechniquesforgraphicalmodelsaswellasfromtheeasinessofspreadsheets,bothworldshavetobetransformableintoeachother.•Therefore,thissectionwillshowhowaspreadsheet-basedmodelcanbetransformedfromandintoBPMN.•Foranaturalorderingofelementswithintheproducedspreadsheet,first,thenodeshavetobesequentialized.
6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling –Cont. 6.3 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationTransformations•InthetransformationofBPMNtospreadsheet,thereexistsalotofBPMNelementsthatcannotbetransformedintoeitheroneoftheapproaches,forexample,subprocessesandcollapsed(black-box)poolsbutalsodescriptiveelementgroupsandannotations.•Messageflowsareusedtomodeltheinteractionofdifferentprocesses,theyareaprettycomplicatedconstructandcanthereforenotbepressedintoaspreadsheet-basedmodelthataimsforsimplicity.
6.3 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationTransformations–Cont.•InthetransformationofspreadsheettoBPMN,allelementsofthethreeapproachescanbetransformedintoBPMNelements.Thereby,everyrowofaspreadsheetisinterpretedasanactivity,exceptifoneofthefollowingcriteriaismet:•In IIand III:IfthenamestartswithAND,XOR,orOR,theelementisagateway.•InIIandIII:Iftheelementhasnopredecessor/successor,itisa startevent/endevent.•InIIandIII:Iftherefproperty isset,thentheelementisacollapsedsubprocess.•In III: If the elementisconnectedthrougha typed relation(e.g., input),thenthe element’stypecan bededucted fromtherelation.6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling–Cont.
6.3 BusinessProcessModelingandNotationTransformations–Cont.Table 11.4: Transformability of BPMN Elements and Relations6. Spreadsheet-BasedProcessModeling–Cont.
Summary•UsingBPMN,businessanalystscandescribeorganizationalprocessesinawaythatcanbeunderstoodbydevelopersandsystemintegratorsandthatcanserveasablueprintforimplementingtheservicesandorchestrationsrequiredtosupportthoseprocesses.
MainReference1.Chapter11 (EnterpriseModelingbyVivekKale)ThisPresentationismainlydependentonthetextbook:EnterpriseProcessManagementSystemsbyVivekKale
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ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402–Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 9 -Business Process Modeling and Notation –part 1
Contents1.BusinessProcessModelingandNotationCoreElements2.ExceptionHandling3.Transactions
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.UnderstandBusinessProcessModelingandNotationCoreElements2.UnderstandExceptionHandlinginBusinessProcessModeling3.UnderstandTransactionsinBusinessProcessModeling
Required Reading1.Chapter 11: Business Process Modeling and NotationRecommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern based approach (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 007240429 (print), 9781308469676 (e-text).2.Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Tutorialhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxd19GDrnVYThis Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Introduction:Business Process Modeling and Notation
Intro: Business Process Modeling and Notation•BusinessProcessModelingandNotation(BPMNversion1.0)wasproposedinMay2004andadoptedbytheObjectManagementGroup(Needham,MA)forratificationinFebruary2006.•ThecurrentversionisBPMN2.0.BPMNisbasedontherevisionofothernotationsandmethodologies,especiallyUnifiedModelingLanguage(UML)ActivityDiagram,UMLEDOCBusinessProcess,IDEF,ebXMLBPSS,Activity-DecisionFlowDiagram,RosettaNet,LOVeM,andEventdrivenProcessChains.
Intro: Business Process Modeling and Notation –Cont.•TheprimarygoalofBPMNwastoprovideanotation•thatisreadilyunderstandablebyallbusinessusers,•fromthebusinessanalystswhocreatetheinitialdraftoftheprocessestothetechnicaldevelopersresponsibleforimplementingthetechnologythatwillsupporttheexecutionandperformanceofthoseprocessesand,•finally,tothebusinesspeoplewhowillmanageandmonitorthoseprocesses.•BPMNstandardizesthenotationusedbybusinessexpertsontheonehandandinformationtechnologyspecialistsontheother,thusfinallybridgingthegapbetweenthem.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements•Processdiagrams,alsocalledbusinessprocessdiagrams,areatthecoreofBPMNmodeling.•BPMNhasfivecoreelementcategoriesforimplementingthepropertiesofbusinessprocessdiagrams;theseare:1.Flowobjects2.Data,orinformation3.Connectingobjects4.Swimlanes5.Artifacts
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.Flowobjects,whicharethemaingraphicalelementsofBPMNanddefinethebehaviorofaprocess.Therearethreeseparatetypesofflowobjects:•Event(displayedasacircle)•Activity(displayedasarectanglewithroundedcorners),whichcanbefurthersubdividedintotasksandsubprocesses•Gateway(displayedasadiamond)
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.Table 11.1: Flow Objects
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.2.Data,orinformationthatiseitherprocessedwithinaprocessorexchangedbetweendifferentprocesses.ThiscomprisesthefollowingfiveBPMNelements:•Dataobject•Datainput•Dataoutput•Datastore•Message
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.3.Connectingobjects,whichallowanindividualtoconnectflowobjectstooneanotherortoconnecttosupplementaryinformation.Therearethreedifferenttypesofconnectingobjects:•Sequenceflow•Messageflow•Association
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.Table 11.2: Connecting Objects: (a) Basic Types
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.4.Swimlanes,whichareusedtogrouptheprimarymodelingelementsmentionedearlier.TherearetwotypesofgroupinginBPMN:•Pools•(Swim)lanes5.Artifacts,whichareusedtoprovideadditionalinformationabouttheprocess.Therearetwotypesofartifacts:•Group•Textannotation
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.Table 11.2: (b) Swim-Lane Object Types
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.Table 11.2: (c) Artefact Types
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.1Events•Themostcommontypesofeventsarestartandendevents,whichareusedintop-levelprocesses.•Startevents:Thereareseveralstarteventtypesdependentonhowsucheventscanbetriggered.ThestarteventwithamessagetriggerisprobablythemostcommonwayofmarkingthebeginningofaBPMNprocess.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.1Events•Thevarioustypesoftriggersare:•Amessagetrigger•Atimertrigger•Aconditiontrigger•Asignaltriggerissimilartoamessagetrigger•Multipleandparallelmultipletriggers•Endevents:Endeventsrepresentthedifferentresultsthataprocessmayproduce.Typically,thetypeofendeventisthelogicalcounterpartofthecorrespondingtypeofstartevent.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.1Events•Thevarioustypesofresultsare:•Messageresult•Signalresult•Multipleresults
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.2Activities•Aprocessiscomprisedofseveralsubprocessesandactivities.BPMN2.0definesseveralkindsofactivities:•Servicetask•Sendtask•Receivetask•Instantiatingreceivetask•Manualtask•Usertask•Scripttask•Businessruletask
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.3Subprocesses•Anotherinterestingpossibilityistodefineanactivityasasubprocess.Thismeansthatanactivitybecomesaplaceholderforsomeprocesslogicthatonemaywanttoinsertatthatpointintheprocess.•Subprocessesareoftwoforms:•Ifcollapsed,thesubprocesslookslikearegularactivityexceptfortheplussign(i.e.,“C”)indicatingthatitcontainsadditionalprocesslogic.•Ifexpanded,thesubprocessshowsthelogicthatiscontainedinsideit.Suchlogicmustfollowthesamedesignprinciplesasatop-levelprocess,so,usually,itcontainsastartevent,asequenceofactivities,andanendevent.Itisonlywhenthesubprocessreachesitsendeventthattheparentprocesscanproceedtothenextactivity.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.4Gateways•Gatewaysareusedtorepresentdecisions.Gatewaysareofseveraltypes;however,regardlessofthetypeofgatewaythatisbeingused,eachgatewaythatsplitstheflowinmultiplepathsismatchedbyanothergatewayofthesametypethatmergesthosepathsbackintothemainflow.•BPMN2.0definesseveralkindsofgateways:•exclusivegateway•parallelgateway•inclusivegateway•complexgateway
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.5Looping•Aprocessrepresentsasequenceofactivitieswhereeachactivityisexecutedbeforemovingontothenextone.•Inparticular,eachactivityisexecutedatmostonce.However,inpractice,theremaybescenarioswhereasingleactivityhastoberunmultipletimes.•BPMNenablesausertospecifyifanactivityistobeexecutedmultipletimes.•Insomecases,theactivitywillbeexecutedanumberoftimesuntilacertainconditionistrue.•Theloopactivity,ontheotherhand,isameanstokeepanactivityrunninguntilsomeconditionistrue.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.Table 11.3: Looping
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.6IntermediateEvents•Intermediateeventsareeventsthatoccursomewherealongtheflowoftheprocess.•InBPMN,anintermediateeventthatwaitsforsomeinputissaidtobe“catching,”whileanintermediateeventthatproducessomeoutputissaidtobe“throwing.”
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.6IntermediateEvents•BPMN2.0definesseveralkindsofintermediateevents,asfollows:•Atimereventisanintermediateeventthatwaitsuntilacertaindeadlinehasbeenreachedoruntilacertainamountoftimehaspassed.•Aconditioneventwaitsuntilacertainconditionistrue.•Asignaleventwaitsforacertainsignal.•Amultipleeventcanwaitformultiplethingstohappen(e.g.,amessageandacondition,amessageandatimer,etc.).
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.7Event-BasedGateway•Theevent-basedgatewayissimilartoanintermediateeventwithmultipletriggers.•Theeventthatoccursfirstwilldeterminethebranchtobefollowed,andtheremainingbrancheswillbeskipped.•BPMN2.0enableseitherexclusiveorparallelversionsofanevent-basedgatewaybeingthefirstelementinaprocess(orsubprocess).
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.1.7Event-BasedGateway•Thefirsteventtooccurinstantiatestheprocess,determinesthebranchtobeexecuted,andensuresallotherbranchesareskipped.Inthelattercase,thefirsteventtooccurinstantiatestheprocess,buttheremainingbrancheswillbekeptaliveandlisteningfortheirrespectiveevents;inthiscase,theprocesswillbecompletewhenallbrancheshavebeenexecuted.Naturally,onlythefirsteventinstantiatestheprocess—theremainingeventswilljusttriggeradditionalbrancheswithinthesameprocessinstance.
1. Business Process Modeling and Notation Core Elements –Cont.•BPMN 2.0 Poster: •http://www.bpmb.de/images/BPMN2_0_Poster_EN.pdf•http://www.bpmb.de/index.php/BPMNPoster
2. Exception Handling•InBPMN,thereareseveraldifferentwaystorepresentexceptionsandtoincludebehaviorthatisspecificallytargetedathandlingthoseexceptions.•BPMN2.0languageprovidesseveralconstructstorepresentexceptionhandlinginbusinessprocesses:•Errorevents•Intermediateevents•Escalationevents•Eventsubprocesses
2. Exception Handling –Cont.•Errorevents•ThesearethetraditionalsolutiontotheproblemofrepresentingexceptionsinBPMN.•Theerroreventisaspecialkindofeventthatcantaketheformofanintermediateevent(iftheerrorisbeingcaught)oranendevent(iftheerrorisbeingthrown).•Intheformercase,theerroreventactsasanintermediate(catching)eventattachedtotheboundaryofanactivity.•Inthelattercase,theactivitythrowsanerrorbymeansofanendevent.
2. Exception Handling –Cont.•Intermediateevents•Theseareattachedtotheboundaryofactivitiesarethemostcommonlyusedconstructstorepresentexceptions.•Theattachedeventsareinterruptingeventsinthesensethattheiroccurrenceinterruptstheexecutionoftheactivitytheyareattachedto.•However,BPMNalsoenablesnoninterruptingattachedevents;forinstance,whensomeonesendsaninquirywhiletheactivityisrunning,theuseofanoninterruptingmessageeventallowstheinquirytobehandledandaresponsetobereturnedwithoutinterruptingtheactivity.
2. Exception Handling –Cont.•Escalationevents•Theseareavariationontheerrorevents,withthemainpurposeofalertingsomeoneelse—particularly,someonewhoisaboveinthehierarchicalstructureoftheorganization—ofsomeproblematicsituationthatoccursinthebusinessprocess.•Inparticular,anescalationeventmeansthatsomeonewithhigherresponsibility(e.g.,asupervisor)willbecalledtointervene,oratleastwillbenotified.•Asignificantdifferencebetweenerroreventsandescalationeventsisthatescalationeventsmaybethrownbyintermediateeventsandmayalsobecaughtbynoninterruptingattachedevents.
2. Exception Handling –Cont.•Eventsubprocesses•Thiscanbetriggeredbyaneventoccurringinparallelwiththemainprocessflow.•Thiseventmayoccuratanypointduringtheprocess,andthesubprocesswillberunimmediatelyasareactiontothatevent.•Becauseaneventsubprocessisabletokeeplisteningforeventsduringtheentiredurationofaprocess,ithassomeadvantageswhencomparedwiththeintermediateeventsthatceasetolistenfortheeventtriggeroncetheactivityorsubprocessiscompleted.
3. Transactions –Cont.•Inbusinessprocesses,transactionsworkinadifferentwayfromthetraditionaltransactionsindatabasesystems.•Inparticular,inabusinessprocess,therearelong-runningtransactions,whereworkiscommittedinastepwisefashioninsteadofbeinghelduntiltheveryendofthetransaction.•TheBPMNlanguageprovidesseveralconstructstorepresenttransactionsandcompensationinbusinessprocesses.
3. Transactions –Cont.•TheBPMNlanguageprovidesseveralconstructstorepresenttransactionsandcompensationinbusinessprocesses,asfollows:•Compensationhandlers:ThereisanassociationbetweentaskAandtaskBand,inparticular,thisassociationmeansthattaskBisthecompensationhandlerfortaskA.•Transactionalsubprocesses:Thetransactionalsubprocesscanberegardedasatransactionalconceptthatservesasacontainerforotheractivitiesorsubprocesses.•Compensationevents:Compensationhandlerscanalsobetriggeredexplicitlythroughtheuseofcompensationevents.
Summary•BPMNisagraphicalnotationformodelingbusinessprocesses.•ThischapterexploredthewiderangeofelementsthatBPMNprovidestocreatebusinessprocessmodels.•ThenotationofBPMNissufficientlyclearsoastodescribeprocessbehaviorinawaythatcanbetranslatedintoanexecutableform.
Main Reference1.Chapter 11 (Enterprise Modeling by Vivek Kale)This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Thank You
ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402–Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 10-EPMS for Business Process Improvement –Part 1
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.UnderstandBusinessProcessReengineering2.UnderstandEnterpriseBusinessProcessRedesignorReengineeringMethodology
Contents1.BusinessProcessReengineering2.EnterpriseBusinessProcessRedesignorReengineeringMethodology1.StrategicPlanningforEnterpriseBusinessProcessReengineering.Then,identifythereasonbehindredesigningtheprocesstorepresentthevalueperceivedbythecustomer.2.Selectthebusinessprocessesforthereengineeringeffort.3.Maptheselectedprocesses.4.Analyzetheprocessmapstodiscoveropportunitiesforreengineering.5.Redesigntheselectedprocessesforincreasedperformance.6.Implementthereengineeredprocesses.7.Measuretheimplementationofthereengineeredprocesses.
Required Reading1.Chapter 15: EPMS for Business Process ImprovementRecommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern based approach (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 007240429 (print), 9781308469676 (e-text).2.Business Process Reengineeringhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZHqAo4QryEThis Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Introduction: EPMS for Business Process Improvement
Intro: Business Process Improvement Programs•Processimprovementprogramsrangerightfromdisruptivetocontinuousimprovementprograms.1.Thedisruptiveimprovementprogramscorrespondstobusinessprocessreengineeringprograms,2.TheContinuousimprovementprogramscorrespondstoprogramslikelean,SixSigma,andtheTheoryofConstraints(TOC).•Lean,whichisaprovenapproachforbecominganexcellentoperationalsystem•SixSigma,whichisaprogramforattainingworld-classqualityimprovement•TheTOC,whichisanunsurpassedtoolforidentifyingandremovingbottlenecks
1. Business Process Reengineering•BPRisa“radicalchange”.BPRcanbebroadlytermedastherethinkingandchangeofbusinessprocessestoachievedramaticimprovementsinthemeasuresofperformanceaspectssuchascost,quality,service,andspeed.•SomeoftheprincipalsadvocatedbyMichaelHammer,whotriggeredtheBPRrevolutionin1990areasfollows:•Organizearoundoutputs,nottasks.•Placethedecisionsandcontrol,andhenceallrelevantinformation,intothehandsoftheperformer.•Havethosewhousetheoutputsofaprocessperformtheprocess,includingthecreationandprocessingoftherelevantinformation.•Thelocationofuser,data,andprocessinformationshouldbeimmaterial;itshouldfunctionasifallwereinacentralizedplace.
1. Business Process Reengineering –Cont. •BPRinpracticehasdevelopedafocusonchangingcapability/capacityintheshort-termtoaddresscurrentissues.Thisshort-termchangeincapability/capacityisusuallydrivenbytheneedto:•Reducethecycletimetoprocesscustomerorders•Improvequotationtimes•Lowervariableoverheadcosts•Increaseproductrangetomeetanimmediatecompetitorthreat•Rebalanceresourcestomeetcurrentmarketneeds•Reducework-in-progressstocks•Meetchangedlegislationrequirements•Introduceshort-termmeasurestoincreasemarket-share(e.g.,increasedcreditlimitfromcustomershitbyrecessionarytrends)
2. Enterprise Business Process Redesign or Reengineering Methodology•Anoverviewofaseven-stepBPRmethodologyisasfollows:1.DevelopthecontextforundertakingtheBPRandinparticularreengineertheenterprise’sbusinessprocesses.Then,identifythereasonbehindredesigningtheprocesstorepresentthevalueperceivedbythecustomer.2.Selectthebusinessprocessesforthereengineeringeffort.3.Maptheselectedprocesses.4.Analyzetheprocessmapstodiscoveropportunitiesforreengineering.5.Redesigntheselectedprocessesforincreasedperformance.6.Implementthereengineeredprocesses.7.Measuretheimplementationofthereengineeredprocesses.
2. Enterprise Business Process Redesign or Reengineering Methodology
2.1 Strategic Planning for Enterprise Business Process Reengineering•Allmarketsarefluidtosomedegree,andthesedynamicforcesandshiftingcustomervaluesnecessitatechangesinacompany’sstrategicplans.•Thecompetitivegapcanbedefinedasthegapbetweenthecustomer’sminimumacceptancevalue(MAV)andthecustomervaluedeliveredbytheenterprise.•Criticalvaluedeterminants(CVDs)arethosebusinessimperativesthatmusthappeniftheenterprisewantstoclosethecompetitivegapandaresimilartothecriticalsuccessfactorsattheenterpriselevel.
2.1 Strategic Planning for Enterprise Business Process Reengineering –Cont.•Criticalvaluedeterminants(CVDs)areexpressedintermsoffactorssuchas•Time(e.g.,leadtime,cycletime)•Flexibility(e.g.,customization,options,composition,resourcenetworkinterfaces)•Responsiveness(e.g.,leadtime,duration,numberofhand-offs,priority,numberofqueues)•Qualityofwork(e.g.,rework,rejects,yield)
2.1 Strategic Planning for Enterprise Business Process Reengineering –Cont. 2.1.1IdentifyingtheBusinessProcessesintheCompany•Allbusinessprocessinanenterpriseareidentifiedandrecorded.•Aprocesscanbedefinedasasetofresourcesandactivitiesnecessaryandsufficienttoconvertsomeformofinputintosomeformofoutput.•Aprocessitselfcanconsistofvarioussubsteps.Thesubstepsinaprocessmayinclude:•Value-addedsteps•Non-valueaddedsteps•Legalandregulatorysteps(whicharetreatedasvalue-addedsteps)
2.2 Selecting Business Processes for Business Process Reengineering •Selectingtherightprocessesforaninnovativeprocessreengineeringeffortiscritical.•Theprocessesshouldbeselectedfortheirhighvisibility;relativeeaseofaccomplishinggoals;and,atthesametime,theirpotentialforgreatimpactonthevaluedeterminants.•Theminimumacceptancevalue(MAV)mustbechartedindetail.MAVisdependentuponseveralfactors,suchas:•Thecustomer’spriorgeneralandparticularexperiencebasewithanindustry,product,and/orservice•Whatthecompetitionisdoingintheconcernedindustry,product,orservice•Whateffecttechnologicallimitationshaveonsettingtheupperlimit
2.2 Selecting Business Processes for Business Process Reengineering –Cont. •CriticalvaluedeterminantsCVDscanbedefinedbyobtainingdatathroughthefollowing:•Thecustomervaluesurvey•Leadersinnoncompetingareas•Thebest-in-classperformancelevels•Internalcustomers
2.2 Selecting Business Processes for Business Process Reengineering –Cont. Adetailedcustomervalueanalysisanalyzesthevaluegapsandhelpsinfurtherrefiningthegoalsoftheprocessreengineeringexercise.Thevaluegapsareasfollows:•Gapsthatresultfromdifferentvalueperceptionsindifferentcustomergroups•Gapsbetweenwhatthecompanyprovidesandwhatthecustomerhasestablishedastheminimumperformancelevel•Gapsbetweenwhatthecompanyprovidesandwhatthecompetitionprovides•GapsbetweenwhattheorganizationperceivesastheMAVfortheidentifiedcustomergroupsandwhatthecustomersaysarethecorrespondingMAVs
2.3 Creating Process Maps•Aprocessmapdocumentstheflowofoneunitofwork(theunitmaybeoneitem,onebatch,oraparticularservicethatisthesmallestunitpossibletofollowseparately)orwhatactuallyhappenstotheworkgoingthroughtheprocess.•Itdocumentsbothvalue-addedandnon-value-addedsteps.Aprocessmapcouldeitherbesequentialorconcurrentinnature.•Aprocesscouldbemappedinthefollowingtwoforms:•Workflowchartform•Workbreakdownstructureform
2.3 Creating Process Maps –Cont. •Processworkflowsfallintothreecategories:continuousworkflows,balancedworkflows,andsynchronizedworkflows.•Workflowbecomesnonsynchronizedbecauseofthefollowing:1.Stepsortasksbeingproducedatdifferentrates—thatis,animbalancedworkflow2.Physicalseparationofoperationscausingworktomoveinbatches3.Workinginbatches,causingintermittentflow4.Longsetuporchangeovertimesresultinginbatchedworkalongwithassociatedproblems5.Variationsinprocessinputsintermsofqualityavailabilityontime
2.4 Analyzing Processes for Breakthrough Improvements•Anenterprise’scompetitivestrengthliesineliminatingasmanycostlynon-value-addedstepsandwait-timesaspossible.•Forbreakthroughimprovements,theprocessmapsareanalyzedforthefollowing:•Enterprisecomplexity:Commonlyorganizationalissuesareamajordeterrenttoefficiencyoftheprocesses.•Numberofhandoffs,especiallythoseotherthanthoseassociatedwithresourcenetworkinterfaces.•Workmovement:Workflowchartsareutilizedtohighlightmovedistances•Processproblems:Severalfactorsmayhaveasevereeffectonthecontinuity,balance,orsynchronicityoftheworkflow.Examplesareloopsofnon-value-addedstepsdesignedtoaddressrework,errors,scraps,andsoon.
2.5 Innovative Breakthrough Improvement in Processes•Thestepsinvolvedininnovativeproblem-solvingmethodsareasfollows:•Defineaproblem.•Findalternatesolutions.•Evaluatethesolutions.•Implementthebestsolution.•Measureandmonitorthesuccess.
2.5 Innovative Breakthrough Improvement in Processes –Cont. •Theresponsiveprocessconsistsofthefollowingcomponents:•Diagnosingcustomerneed(s)•Developingcustomizedsolutionsspecifictoorganizationalinterfaces•Dynamicallyassigningworktotheappropriatedeliveryunit•Trackingperformanceaseachtaskiscompleted•Businessissuesfallintothreebasiccategories:•Systemproblems(e.g.,methods,procedures)•Technicalproblems(e.g.,engineering,operational)•Peopleproblems(e.g.,skills,training,hiring)—theseproblemsarisebecauseofthe•conceptof“ifyouchangewhatapersondoes,thenyouchangewhatheorsheis”
2.6 Implementing Designed Processes•Thisinvolvesthefollowing:•Reengineeredvisionandpolicies•Reengineeredstrategiesandtactics•Reengineeredsystemsandprocedures•Reengineeredcommunicationenvironment•Reengineeredorganizationarchitecture•Reengineeredtrainingenvironment
2.7 Measuring the Performance of Designed Processes•Measuringtheperformanceofanyprocessisveryimportant,becausealackofmeasurementwouldmakeitimpossibletodistinguishsuchabreakthrougheffortfromanincrementalimprovementeffortofatotalqualitymanagementprogram.•Measurementsareessentialbecausetheyare:•Usefulasbaselinesorbenchmarks•Amotivationforfurtherbreakthroughimprovements,whichareimportantforfuturecompetitiveness
Summary•Processimprovementprogramsrangerightfromdisruptivetocontinuousimprovementprograms—thefirstcorrespondstobusinessprocessreengineeringprograms,whilethelattercorrespondstoprogramslikelean,SixSigma,andtheTOC.•BPRisassociatedwithdisruptiveimprovement,whilebusinessprocessredesignisassociatedwithcontinuousimprovement.
Main Reference1.Chapter 15: (EPMS for Business Process Improvement by Vivek Kale)This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Thank You
ةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللااةعماجلاةيدوعسلاةينورتكللاا26/12/2021
College of Computing and InformaticsIT402Integrated Enterprise Systems
IT402–Integrated Enterprise SystemsWeek 10-EPMS for Business Process Improvement –Part 2
Weekly Learning Outcomes1.UnderstandEnterprise-WideContinuousImprovementPrograms2.UnderstandTime-BasedCompetition
Contents3.Enterprise-WideContinuousImprovementPrograms1.LeanSystem,2.SixSigma,and3.TheoryofConstraints4.Time-BasedCompetition1.Activity-BasedCustomerResponsiveness2.Activity-BasedCosting,3.Time-DrivenActivity-BasedCostingand4.ResponsiveActivityPricing
Required Reading1.Chapter 15: EPMS for Business Process ImprovementRecommended Reading1.Dunn, C., Cherrington, J., & Hollander, A. (2005). Enterprise information systems: A pattern based approach (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education. ISBN: 007240429 (print), 9781308469676 (e-text).This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Introduction: EPMS for Business Process Improvement
Intro: Business Process Improvement Programs•Processimprovementprogramsrangerightfromdisruptivetocontinuousimprovementprograms.1.Thedisruptiveimprovementprogramscorrespondstobusinessprocessreengineeringprograms,2.TheContinuousimprovementprogramscorrespondstoprogramslikelean,SixSigma,andtheTheoryofConstraints(TOC).•Lean,whichisaprovenapproachforbecominganexcellentoperationalsystem•SixSigma,whichisaprogramforattainingworld-classqualityimprovement•TheTOC,whichisanunsurpassedtoolforidentifyingandremovingbottlenecks
3. Enterprise-Wide Continuous Improvement ProgramsTheContinuousimprovementprogramscorrespondstoprogramslikelean,SixSigma,andtheTheoryofConstraints(TOC).1.Lean,whichisaprovenapproachforbecominganexcellentoperationalsystem2.SixSigma,whichisaprogramforattainingworld-classqualityimprovement3.TheTOC,whichisanunsurpassedtoolforidentifyingandremovingbottlenecks
3.1 Lean System•LeanSystemisbasedontheToyotaproductionsystem,whichToyotaMotorCorporation(Toyota,Japan)hasbeenperfectingformorethanfivedecades.•TheToyotaproductionsystemwasinspiredbytheFordproductionsystem(FordMotorCompany,Dearborn,MI,USA).•In1950,whenToyotawasintrouble,EijiToyodawenttoDetroittolearnfromthelegendaryFordMotorCompanyabouthowtoimprovehisfamily’sbusiness.
3.1 Lean System –Cont. •Leanidentifiesfivekeyconcepts:•Valueisdefinedbythecustomer.•Valuestreamistheinformationandmaterialflowfromsuppliers’supplierstocustomers’customers.•Flowisthesynchronizedcontinuousmovementofmaterialthroughthevaluestream.•Pullisaproductusagesignalfromthecustomertootherparticipantsinthesupplychain.•Perfectionistheneverendingpursuitofzerowaste.
3.1 Lean System –Cont. •Itspecifiessevenformsofwastetobeeliminated:•Overproduction:makingmorethanisneeded•Transport:excessivemovementofmaterials•Motion:inefficientmovementofpeople•Waiting:underutilizationofpeople•Inventory:materiallyingaroundunused•Overprocessing:manufacturingtoahigherqualitystandardthanexpectedbythecustomer•Defectcorrection:timespentfixingdefects,includingthepartthatgetsthrownawayandthetimeittakestomaketheproductcorrectly
3.2 Six Sigma•SixSigmaisabusinessimprovementapproachthatseekstofindandeliminatecausesofmistakesordefectsinbusinessprocessesbyfocusingonoutputsthatareofcriticalimportancetocustomers.•SixSigmaprojectsshouldbecustomer-focused.•SixSigmacanbeappliedtoanyprocessthatneedsimprovement.•Oncetheprojectsaredefined,thefivestepSixSigmaDefine,Measure,Analyze,Improve,andControl(DMAIC)processisused.
3.2 Six Sigma –Cont. •Thefivephasesareasfollows:•Define:thisphaseclearlydefinesthegoaloftheprojectbyaskingthefollowing:•Whatistheundesirableprocessvariabilityordefectthatmustbeeliminated?•Whatisthebenefitifthereiszerowasteandawell-definedprojectcharter,whichIsdrivenbyabusinessstrategyandabusinessplanimprovementgoal?•Reflectsthevoiceofthecustomerinprojectmetrics?•Clearlydefinesprojectobjectives?•Definesthescopeoftheprojectappropriatelytoensureitcanbeaccomplishedinfourtosixmonthsorless?
3.2 Six Sigma –Cont. •Measure:thisphaseclearlydefinesthecurrentprocess,establishesmetrics,andvalidatesthemeasurementqualitybyasking:•Whatisthemeasurementoftheoutputdefects(Ys)?•Analyze:thisphaseclearlydefinestherootcausesofvariation:•Selectingenoughinputvariables(Xs)tomakeanalysisfeasible•Usingmultiple-variablestudiestodeterminewhichXshavethemostimpactontheoutputdefect(s)(Ys)•Planninginitialimprovementactivities
3.2 Six Sigma –Cont. •Improve:thisphaseclearlyidentifiesrelationshipsbetweencriticalXs;theoutputdefect(s)(Ys)arequantifiedandselectedtoverifytheproposedsolutionsby:•DeterminingtheeffectcriticalXshaveontheoutputdefect(s)(Ys)usingdesignedexperiments•Developingthesequenceofexperiments•Identifyingthecriticalinputsthatneedtobecontrolled•Definingandpilotingsolutionstoresolveproblemrootcauses•Control:thisphaseensuresthattheprocessmaintainsthegainsachieved,isneutralorpositiveforcustomers,andcontrolsthecriticalXsthroughthefollowing:•Awell-executedcontrolplan•Theidentificationofthecontrolplanprocessowner•Trackingoffinancialresultsforoneyear
3.3 Theory of Constraints•TheTOCwasdevelopedbyEliGoldrattandcollaborators.Itbecamebroadlyknownin1984whenGoldratt’sbook,Goal,waspublished.•TheTOCviewsanenterpriseasasystemwithresourceslinkedtogethertomeettheenterprise’sgoals.•TOCimprovementtoolsareeffectivebothforcontinuousimprovementandbreakthroughproblem-solving.
3.3 Theory of Constraints –Cont. •Theseprinciplesledtothefollowinguniversalfive-stepmethodologyforbusinessimprovement:1.Identifythesystem’sconstraints.2.Decidehowtoexploitthesystem’sconstraints.3.Subordinateeverythingelsetotheearlierdecision.4.Elevatethesystem’sconstraints.5.Ifintheprevioussteps,aconstrainthasbeenbroken,gobacktostep1.
3.3.1 Theory of Constraints Tools•TheTOCemploysfivetoolsasfollows:•Whattochange?•Currentrealitytree•Objectiveforchange•Evaporatingcloudand•Futurerealitytree•Howtochange?•Prerequisitetreeand•Transitiontree
4. Time-Based Competition•TBCwasinventedbyGeorgeStalkandhiscolleaguesfromtheBostonConsultingGroup(Boston,MA).•TBCisdefinedastheextensionofjust-in-time(JIT)principlesintoeveryfacetofthevaluedeliverycycle,fromresearchanddevelopmentthroughtomarketinganddistribution.•TBCconsidersthewholevaluechainandfocusesonthetotaltimerequiredtoproduceanddeliverproductsandservices.
4. Time-Based Competition –Cont. •TimereductionessentialforachievingTBCcanbeachievedthroughmeasuressuchas:•Simplification,orremovingprocesscomplexitythathasaccumulatedovertime•Integration,orimprovinginformationflowsandlinkagestocreateenhancedoperabilityandvisibility•Standardization,orusinggenericbest-practiceprocesses,standardizedcomponentsandmodules,andinformationprotocols•Concurrentworking,ormovingfromsequentialtoparallelworkingbyusing,forexample,teamsandotherformsofprocessintegration
4. Time-Based Competition –Cont. •TimereductionessentialforachievingTBCcanbeachievedthroughmeasuressuchas–Cont.:•Variancecontrol,ormonitoringprocesses,anddetectingproblemsatanearlystagesothatcorrectiveactioncanbetakentoavoidproblemswithqualityandwaste•Automation,whichisappliedtoimprovetheeffectivenessandefficiencyofentitiesandactivitieswithinthesupply-chainprocess•Resourceplanning,orallocatingresourcesinlinewithoperationalbestpractice;forexample,acompanycanplanbyinvestigatingbottleneckactivitiesandconsideringtheuseofmultiskilledworkforcestoprovideresourceflexibility
4.1 Activity-Based Customer Responsiveness•Enterprisesthatdeploycustomerresponsiveactivitieshavethefollowingobjectives:•Buildingrelationshipssothatcustomersbecome“conditioned”tocontacttheenterprisefirstwhenevertheyhaveaneed•Establishingtheenterprisetoprovideeffectivediagnosesandresponseswhenevercustomersestablishsuchcontactwiththeenterprise•Creatingthecapabilityandprocessestoenablecustomer-facingmemberstocultivatedeepandlong-termrelationshipswiththecustomersandcost-effectivelycoordinateeachindividualdeliveryofbenefits
4.1 Activity-Based Customer Responsiveness –Cont. •Therefore,foranenterprisetobetotallyflexibleinrespondingtoindividualcustomers,theenterprisemustdevelopthefollowingthreethings:•Process(es)forinteractingwithindividualcustomersanddefiningtheirindividualneeds•Conditionalbest-practiceguidelinesfordefininghowtheorganizationwillrespondtovarioustypeofcustomerrequests•AdynamicassigningsystemthatallowsJITassignmentofworkfordeliverytoresourceswithappropriatecapabilityandcapacity
4.2 Activity-Based Costing•ABCisawayoflinkinganenterprise’smarketpositioningtoitsinternalcoststructure,i.e.,capability.•TheABCdataisusefulasasourcetosupport:•Profitabilitymanagement,suchascostingandprofitabilityanalysis,customerandproductmixdecisions,andsupportformarketingdecisions•Revenueandperformancemanagement,suchasresourcetovolumeandservicelevelchanges,activitybudgeting,andcostdriveranalysis
4.2 Activity-Based Costing –Cont. •TheBPMefforthelpsinidentifyingalistofcostdriversthatareallocatedtothevariousactivities.Thesecouldinclude:•Thevolumeofmaterialsused,laborhoursconsumed,partsproduced•Thenumberofnewparts,newsuppliers,newprototypes•Thenumberofcustomers,ordersraised,invoicessent•Thenumberofdesignmodifications,customerwarrantyclaims,andsoon
4.3 Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing•TheconventionalABCsystemsdemonstratedmanydrawbacksinthattheywereexpensivetobuild,complextosustain,anddifficulttomodify.•Theyalsomadeunrealisticassumptions,asfollows:•Identifiedactivities(e.g.,processingcustomersordersorenquiries)takeaboutthesameamountoftime,withoutanyclearvariationsforparticularcircumstances•Resourcesworkatfullcapacitywithoutdiscountingforidleorunusedtime
4.4 Responsive Activity Pricing•Someoftherelevantcharacteristicsofcustomer-responsiveactivitiesareasfollows:•Thereisnostandardizedproductforwhichthereisamarketprice.Asthedeliveredsolutioniscustomizedtoeachindividualcustomer’sneeds,thevalueofthedeliveredsolutionisdeterminedbyhowwellthesolutionsolvesthecustomer’sneedsandmustbepricedseparately.•Therearenoproductsthataretradable;deliveryservicesarenottradable.•Therefore,thereisnomarketpriceforthedeliveryservice.•Therearenoproductstoinventory—onlycapacitythatcontinuouslyperishesifitisnotutilizedtodeliverbenefits.•Commitmentstothecustomersaremadeonareal-timebasis.
Summary•Processimprovementprogramsrangerightfromdisruptivetocontinuousimprovementprograms—thefirstcorrespondstobusinessprocessreengineeringprograms,whilethelattercorrespondstoprogramslikelean,SixSigma,andtheTOC.•Leanisaprovenapproachforbecominganexcellentoperationalsystem,SixSigmaisaprogramforattainingworld-classqualityimprovement,andtheTOCisanunsurpassedtoolforidentifyingandremovingbottlenecks.
Main Reference1.Chapter 15: (EPMS for Business Process Improvement by Vivek Kale)This Presentation is mainly dependent on the textbook: Enterprise Process Management Systems by Vivek Kale
Thank You

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