i.Explain the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves (in no more than two sentences) and classify the following waves as either longitudinal waves or transverse waves:

X-rays

Radio waves

Sound waves

Seismic S waves

Seismic P waves

(4 marks)

ii.What is the relationship between the frequency and the period of a wave?

(1 mark)

iii.A wave has frequency of 0.25 Hz. It travels a distance of 100M n 40 s. Calculate how many cycles the wave completes during this journey.

(2 marks)

iv.In the case of electromagnetic radiation (or waves) state the equation that relates wavelength and frequency. You should define any symbols that you use.

(2 marks)

v.A microwave oven uses light of frequency 2.455 GHz. Using your equation in (a) (iv), calculate the wavelength of this light. (Take the speed of light to be .) Express your answer in centimetres to an appropriate number of significant figures.

(5 marks)

b.

i.Light of a sufficiently high frequency shone onto a metal surface can cause electrons to be ejected. What is this effect called?

(1 mark)

ii.To eject an electron from the surface of lithium requires a minimum energy of 4.6 × 10-19 J. Would shining a light of a frequency 5 × 1015 Hz be sufficient to cause electrons to be emitted? You must justify your answer.

Take Plancks’s constant to be .

(4 marks)

c.Perform the following (using your calculator if necessary). Show your working and quote each answer to 4 significant figures:

i.Convert 130° into radians

ii.Convert 0.075 radians into degrees

iii.What is sin 235°?

(4 marks)

d.In Topic 8 Part 1, Section 1.5.1, Activity 1.3, you used the library search facility to find a summary of a Corcoran and Connor (2014) paper. The summary was written by Hans Merzendorfer in the Journal of Experimental Biology. After reading this summary, answer the following questions:

i.What is the scientific name for the Mexican free-tailed bats?

(1 mark)

ii.What is known as the ‘feeding buzz’ of a bat?

(1 mark)