social science multi-part question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.
Identify a task that you currently perform or may perform in your future career, and explain how you will apply the knowledge you have learned in this course. How do you think this course will enhance your professional success? Respond with 200 words
Description of Course
Analyzes how hazardous materials escalate an incident or emergency event. Examination of the basic fundamental concepts common to hazardous chemicals with an emphasis on how some key elements, compounds, and mixtures are inherently dangerous.
COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:
Examine chemistry fundamentals.
Analyze chemical interactions as they relate to the control of potential hazards.
Classify hazardous materials according to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) classification and warning systems.
Determine strategies for dealing with chemical properties of specific types of hazardous substances.
Research important standards related to hazardous substances.
Apply information resources commonly used in emergency response operations.
Examine widely used hazardous materials classification and labeling systems.
Requirements: Identify a task that you currently perform
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 1. Examine chemistry fundamentals. 2. Analyze chemical interactions as they relate to control of potential hazards. 3. Classify hazardous materials according to the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) classification and warning systems. 4. Determine strategies for dealing with chemical properties of specific types of hazardous substances. 5. Research important standards related to hazardous substances. 6. Apply information resources commonly used in emergency response operations. 7. Examine widely used hazardous materials classification and labeling systems. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 1 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 2 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 3 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 4 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 5 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 6 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment 7 Unit Lesson Unit VIII Assessment Required Unit Resources There are no required resources to read or view in this unit. Unit Lesson In the last seven units, you have learned the chemistry of various hazardous materials, which are applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations as well as actions when responding to incidents involving these materials. This Unit VIII Lesson is a review of selected topics regarding the chemistry and technical information of some common elements, oxidizers, acids and bases, water and air reactive materials, organic compounds, explosives, and radioactive materials. UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE Chemistry of Hazardous Materials
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Introduction to Chemistry For starters, we are going to review some simple math involving unit conversions used in chemistry by solving some unit conversion example problems. 1. 64 short tons of metallic titanium is required for the construction of the engines and airframes of each Boeing 777 aircraft. How many pounds (lb) and kilograms (kg) are 64 short tons (t)? Know that: 1 short ton = 907.184 kg 1 kg = 2.2 lb 64 t × 907. 184 kg = 58,060 kg (the t cancels out leaving kg) 1 t 58,060 kg x 2.2 lb = 127,732 lb or 1.28E+05 lb (the kg cancels out leaving lb) 1 kg 2. The following calculation is not in the textbook but may be useful to some, especially if taking the ASP/CSP or IH exams. The concentration of a chemical in the air is usually measured in mass of the chemical per volume of air (such as mg/m3). The concentration can also be expressed in parts per million (ppm) or parts per billion (ppb). You can use the internet to convert from mg/m3 to ppm or ppb and vice versa. If you do not have access to the internet (like during an exam), it would be beneficial to learn or at least understand how to perform the conversion. Conversion of ppm to mg/m3 and vice versa: ppm = (mg/m3)(24.45) MW mg/m3 = (ppm)(MW) 24.45 Where: 24.45 is volume in liters of one gram-mole of a substance MW is molecular weight in gram/mole Example: Convert 25 ppm of CO to mg/m3 MW of CO = 28 mg/m3 = (25 ppm)(28) = 28.63 mg/m3 24.45 DOT Requirements We are going to review some of the DOT requirements by answering one of the exercise questions in the textbook. A transportation company is retained to deliver the following mixed load of hazardous materials to a chemical research facility via a contract motor carrier; see below. • Twenty 55-gal steel drums of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, each weighing 627 lb (285 kg) • Eight 55-gal steel drums of acetone, each weighing 383 lb (65 kg) • Ten 55-gal steel drums of cyclohexane, each weighing 366 lb (166 kg) • One cardboard box containing fifteen 1-lb (0.5-kg) glass bottles of mercuric oxide • Seven 5-gal glass bottles of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, each weighing 60 lb (27 kg) and packaged individually within cardboard boxes a) Determine the shipping description for each hazardous material that the DOT requires on the accompanying shipping paper. The DOT requires the shipper to provide the following shipping descriptions of the hazardous materials in
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title the mixed load: Units HM Shipping Description (Identification Number, Proper Shipping Name, Primary Hazard Class or Division, Subsidiary Hazard Class or Division, and Packing Group) Weight (lb) Twenty (20) 55-gal steel drums X UN2831, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 6.1, PGIII (Poison) 12,540 Eight (8) 55-gal steel drums X UN1090, Acetone, 3, PGII 3,064 Ten (10) 55-gal steel drums X UN1145, Cyclohexane, 3, PGII 3,660 Fifteen (15) 1-lb glass bottles in a cardboard box X UN1641, Mercury oxide, 6.1, PGII (Marine Pollutant) (Poison) 15 Seven (7) 5-gal glass bottles, each in a cardboard box X UN2831, 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, 6.1, PGIII (Poison) 420 b) Which label does DOT require the shipper to affix to the referenced packaging? The DOT requires the shipper to affix a POISON label to each drum of 1,1,1-trichloroethane; a FLAMMABLE LIQUID label to each drum of acetone; a FLAMMABLE LIQUID label to each drum of cyclohexane; a POISON label on each bottle of mercury oxide and a POISON label on the box in which the bottles are contained; and a POISON label on each bottle of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and a POISON label on each box in which the bottles are contained. Corrosives (Acids and Bases) According to Meyer (2020), acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of H+ ions (protons) by forming hydrated hydrogen ions, H3O+ or H(H2O)+. Base is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) by forming hydrated hydroxide ions OH (aq).Their pH denotes the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution. The pH can be measured with the use of a pH meter or pH paper. The pH can also be calculated.
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Air and Water Reactive Substances According to Meyer (2020): • A water-reactive substance is an element or compound that reacts with water to produce either flammable gases that ignite spontaneously or toxic or corrosive compounds that may endanger one’s health upon exposure. Examples include acetyl chloride, trichlorosilane, ammonium sulfide, and calcium hypochlorite. • An air-reactive substance (pyrophoric substance) is an element or compound that ignites spontaneously upon exposure to the oxygen or moisture in the ambient air, typically posing the risk of fire and explosion. (Pyrophoric can also be water-reactive.) Very few of these pyrophoric substances are used commercially. Examples include white phosphorus, finely divided metal powders, and metal hydrides. Toxic Substances Common toxicity measurements, as defined in Chapter 10 of our textbook, are listed below (Meyer, 2020). • PEL (permissible exposure level), for OSHA purposes, is the time-weighted average (TWA) thresholds limit value of substances to which workers can be exposed continuously during an 8-hour work shift without suffering ill effects. PEL established by OSHA is enforceable by law. • STEL (short-term exposure level) is the concentration to which workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without irritation, chronic or irreversible tissue damage, or narcosis of a sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury, impair self-rescue, or materially reduce work efficiency (provided that the daily threshold limit value, the TWA, is not exceeded). • IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and death) is the airborne concentration of any substance that poses an immediate threat to life, causes irreversible or delayed adverse health effects, or interferes with an individual’s ability to escape during a 15-minute period from a dangerous atmosphere. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) establishes these values. • C (ceiling limit) is the maximum permissible concentration of a substance in a working environment that should never be exceeded. • TLV (threshold limit value) is the upper limit of a concentration to which an average healthy person can be repeatedly exposed on an all-day, everyday basis without suffering adverse health effects. The TLV for airborne gaseous substances is usually expressed in parts per million. The TLV for airborne fumes, mists, and particulates is expressed in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)(mg/m3). The TLVs are established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and are not enforceable. pH scale (Blueringmedia, n.d.)
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 5 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title • LD50 (lethal dose, 50% kill) is the amount of a substance that kills half of a group of laboratory animals to which the substance is administered during a pre-established time. The LD50 is expressed in milligrams of administered substances per body mass of the animal in kilograms (mg/kg). • LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% kill) is the concentration of a substance that kills half of a group of laboratory animals to which the substance is administered during a pre-established time. An LD50 is typically expressed in parts per million (ppm) by volume. These measurements are used in different disciplines for a variety of purposes. The DOT uses LD50 values to characterize materials in hazard classes 2.3 and 6.1 to establish the hazard zone for a substance that poses a health hazard by inhalation. See Table 10.3 on page 378 of our textbook for the toxicity measurement limits of some common toxic substances. Chemical Reactions and Oxidizers In this section, we will review some basics of chemical reactions (it is a chemistry course after all). Refer to Chapter 5 for more details on chemical reactions. A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. The initial substances are called reactants, and the resulting substances are called products. These substances are either chemical elements or compounds (Treichel, n.d.). A chemical reaction is better explained in a chemical equation such as the one shown below. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Reactants Products Types of chemical reactions are shown below. 1. Combination reaction is when two or more simpler substances combine to form a more complex substance; this is illustrated in the example below. 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s) where: s (solid) and g (gaseous) 2. Decomposition reaction is when a complex substance is broken down into simpler substances; this is illustrated in the example below. Na2CO3(s) Na2O(s) + CO2(g) 3. Single replacement reaction is when an element and a compound react so that the free element replaces an element in the compound; this is illustrated in the example below. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) where: aq (aqueous) 4. Double replacement is an exchange of the positively charged ions in two compounds; this is illustrated in the example below. Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) → BaSO4(s) +2NaCl(aq) After this review on basic chemical reactions, let’s also review one important chemical reaction that is commonly encountered, the oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. Redox involves the first three types of reactions described above. • Oxidation is the gain of oxygen, loss of hydrogen, or loss of electrons. • Reduction is the loss of oxygen, the gain of hydrogen, or the gain of electrons. • Oxidation-reduction is when the reactant is oxidized, and another reactant is reduced. See the example below.
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 6 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Organic Substances Including Polymers We previously learned that organic chemistry is important as it plays a part in the development of common household chemicals, foods, plastics, drugs, and fuels—most of which are chemical compounds that are a part of daily life. We also learned that organic compounds are those that contain one or more carbon atoms. Most of the time, the carbon atoms share electrons with other nonmetallic atoms, and they can also share electrons with other carbon atoms. When carbon atoms are shared, they can form the bonds shown below. Single bond C – C Double bond C = C Triple Bond C Ξ C Most organic compounds are hydrocarbons (HCs). Examples of organic compounds are shown below with their chemical structures. Examples of organic compounds with their chemical structures (Lacroix, n.d.)
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 7 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Petroleum and Petroleum Products Petroleum is currently the largest and most important source of energy in the world because it is used in numerous industrial processes, such as the manufacture of plastic, soap, gum, and synthetic rubber. According to Meyer (2020), petroleum is a highly complex mixture consisting of many thousands of organic compounds, approximately 75% of which are hydrocarbons, each of whose molecules has from 3 to 60 carbon atoms. The image to the right is a simplified illustration of the production and transportation of petroleum in which emergency response may be needed in the event of an unauthorized release of this material. Explosives and Radioactive Materials Below is a review of the general characteristics of explosives (Meyer, 2020). 1. Why is a shock wave generated when an explosive detonates? The detonation of a chemical explosive is associated with the essentially instantaneous passage of an energy wave through the body of the chemical explosive at a supersonic rate. Because of this speed, the energy wave is sometimes called a shock wave. 2. Following the detonation of an explosive, a plume often appears, much like a smoke plume during a fire. Why is the detonation plume often red? The molecules of many explosives contain at least one nitro group (—NO2). The detonation of these explosives is associated with the production of nitrogen dioxide, a red gas. For this reason, a red plume often appears following the detonation of many chemical explosives, although the color may be obscured by the predominantly black smoke that accompanies the reaction. 3. OSHA regulation 29 C.F.R.§ 1910.109(e)(2) stipulates that empty boxes, paper, and fiber packing materials that previously contained high explosives cannot be used again for any purpose; instead, these materials must be destroyed by burning at an approved, isolated location outdoors. No person may be nearer than 100 feet (31 m)(31 m) after the burning begins. What is the most likely reason that OSHA requires the destruction of the packaging materials in this fashion? Residual material may remain within the packaging used to hold explosive materials during its transportation or storage. The most likely reason OSHA promulgated the regulation at 29 C.F.R. § 1910.109(e)(2) was to eliminate or reduce the possibility that this residue may contribute to an unintentional explosion within the workplace. General Exposure to Ionizing Radiation According to Meyer (2020), alpha, beta, and gamma radiation penetrates matter differently. Alpha radiation is very energetic; it is easily absorbed externally by the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. If it is ingested, however, the energetic alpha radiation may localize in a tissue or bone, where the subsequent biological damage may be severe. A thin piece of paper can stop alpha radiation. Beta radiation penetrates deeper into tissue than alpha radiation and ionizes the substances it encounters. A common material used to shield beta radiation is plastic. Gamma radiation passes readily through tissue and ionizes the substances it encounters. Internal and external exposure to gamma radiation usually causes more severe biological damage than exposure to either alpha or beta radiation. Shielding can be provided with the use of lead. Petroleum industry (Mogilevchik, n.d.)
OSH 3308, Interactions of Hazardous Materials 8 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title References Blueringmedia. (n.d.). The pH scale on white background [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/ph-scale-white-background-illustration-image161458637 Lacroix, A. (n.d.). Basic chemistry with alcohols, aldehydes and ketones on display [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photos-basic-chemistry-image15540133 Meyer, E. (2020). Chemistry of hazardous materials (L. Mauerman, Ed.; 7th ed.). Pearson. Mogilevchik. (n.d.). Petroleum industry colorful horizontal banners [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-illustration-petroleum-industry-colorful-horizontal-banners-oil-extraction-manufacturing-transportation-distribution-vector-image85724881 Treichel, P. M. (n.d.). Chemical reaction. In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 13, 2020 from https://www.britannica.com/science/chemical-reaction Suggested Unit Resources You are encouraged to review the required unit resources for previous units (Chapters 1–16) prior to taking the proctored Final Exam.