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Module 4: Implementation of Quality ManagementBUSD 2027Quality Management
IntroductionTo implement quality management means to impact all the people of an organization and all the supplier relationships upon which that organization relies.What’s Key?•Top management endorsement, direction, and support•Employee involvement•Supplier involvementThere is no magic! Implementing quality management starts with articulating the quality management “system.”
Step 1: Map Processes Relative to ISO Requirements•Top management will need to see what the results of implementation will look like and what the risks are.•Step 1is to create the following documents:–Project charter–Sequence and interaction diagramImage: [Documents icon] by Jatkins, public domain, available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Documents_icon.svg
Step 1: MappingProject CharterA project charter is a document that includes the following components:•Stakeholders•Project milestones•Start and end dates•Costs•Approvals•Sequence and interaction diagram•Project title•Brief background•Objective•Constraints and boundaries•Risks and opportunities•Leader•Project team members•Sponsor
Step 1: MappingProject CharterProject Title•Straightforward•Easy to articulate •Informative•Recognize that the project will be around for a few yearsBrief Background•Puts the project into context•Short narrative that supports the detail described later in the document
Step 1: MappingProject CharterObjective•What does success look like?•What are the results?•What impact will they have on the organization?Constraints and Boundaries•State the limits of the project’s scope•Include any assumptions
Step 1: MappingProject CharterRisks and Opportunities•Include both internal and external influencing factors•List potential impact (severity) and likelihood (probability) •Include mitigating strategiesLeader•The go-to person who is the face of the project for top management•Sometimes top management will assign a leader upon project approval
Step 1: MappingProject CharterProject Team Members•Who should be directly involved from the organization?•Who are the key players?•Ensure representation across departmentsSponsor•A member of top management who is a resource to the team•Role is to ensure that the project has access to a decision maker
Step 1: MappingProject CharterStakeholders•Include association representatives and members of board of directors, unions, etc.•List the names of stakeholdersProject Milestones + Start and End Dates•A high-level indication of the timeline of the project•Not a comprehensive work breakdown structure
Step 1: MappingProject CharterCosts•All the resources needed to complete the project•Can be divided into internal and external costs•Should also include “opportunity costs”
Step 1: MappingProject CharterApprovals•Who is accountable for QM activities•Who needs to “sign off” on things•Include a signature blockSequence and Interaction Diagram•Shows top management how the processes of the system work together to manage quality•Is a requirement of ISO 9001
Step 1: MappingProject CharterSequence and Interaction Diagram (cont’d)Image:Entity-Relationship diagram by PávelCalado, available under a CC BY 2.5 licence at http://www.texample.net/tikz/examples/entity-relationship-diagram/
Step 2: Create the Implementation Plan•The implementation plan is the project plan for an implementation project.•It outlines the process for executing, monitoring, and controlling the project, and includes such considerations as the following:–Schedule Management Plan–Quality Management Plan–HR Management Plan–Procurement and Cost Management Plans–Project Review and Risk Management Plans–Change Management Plan–Communication PlanImage: [Documents icon] by Jatkins, public domain, available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Documents_icon.svg
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the PlanSchedule Management Plan•Conversion of the project timeline from the charter into a detailed schedule.•The plan is often displayed as a Gantt chart or work breakdown structure.•Each sequential step is assigned a resource and a duration from the start of the project until the project ends.Image: Gantt Chartby AnnaKorlyakova, available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 licence at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ConceptDraw_Project_Gantt_Chart.png
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Quality Management Plan•Implementation plans are a process, so need quality management.–How will the timeline be monitored?–How will the budget be monitored?–How will complaints, enquiries, and feedback be managed?Image: [Diagram of PDCA cycle] by K. G. Bulsuk, available under a CC BY 4.0 licence at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PDCA_Cycle.svg
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Human Resource Management Plan•Obtaining and training people can be a part of the project.•The plan should include–Competency and certification tracking–How to recruit–How to hire–How to onboardImage: [Hiring] by Tumisu, available under a CC0 licence, Public domain, at https://pixabay.com/en/hiring-recruitment-job-hire-1977803/
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Procurement and Cost Management Plans•Procurement management: How money allocated to the project is spent on the assets under the control of the project•Processes for the plan include–Requisitioning–Approval–Procurement
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Project Review and Risk Management Plans•Project review meeting schedule–Review each of the plans–Identify whether the project is on track–Identify any issues or risks•How risks will be addressed and reviewedImage: Figure 1: Five Basic Guiding Principles of Risk Management by U.S. Government Accountability Office, Public domain, available at https://www.flickr.com/photos/usgao/9689558388
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Change Management Plan•How are changes approved, implemented, and verified?•How is scope creep prevented and addressed?•How is aversion to change managed?Image: [Consensus plan] by Kim Bruning, available under a CC BY-SA 3.0 licence at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Consensus_plain_2.svg
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanCreate the Plan (cont’d)Communication Plan•The goal is to ensure that the organization remains engaged in the project.•The plan should include–Regular communication of developments–Who receives communications–Type, content, format, medium, and frequency of communication–Who supplies the content–Who manages the plan
Step 2: Create the Implementation PlanPull the Plan Together•Not all of the abovementioned plans need to be included in the implementation plan.•Work with the project manager, sponsor, and team to decide which plans you want to include.Prioritize the Work•It can be risky to implement all the QMS processes at once.•Consultation with top management to prioritize is key.
Step 3: Improve the Process and Culture•There are two important objectives at this stage:1.Change the process2.Change the culture of the organization to accept the new process•Changes that occur from within are the most likely to stick.Image: [Documents icon] by Jatkins, public domain, available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Documents_icon.svg
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureCreate a Process Action Team•The quality of a process is controlled 100% by the employees who work in it. It is critical that they are a part of improving it,•A PAT should include−Five to seven employees−Cross-shift and-cross department representation−One internal customer −One internal supplier−A outside, objective facilitator
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureDocument the Current State•Use the PAT to create a process map (e.g., a swimlanediagram) of the current state of the process•Define the individual procedures that make up the process.•Include details about–The flow of information–Material inputs and outputs–Who is involved in each stepImage: Approvals by Paul Kerr, CC0, Public domain, available at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Approvals.svg
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureIdentify Current Issues•Ask the PAT to talk about the current performance of the process:−What is working and what is not working?−What bother members of the PAT?−What kinds of communication problems exist?−What audit findings or customer complaints have been received in the past?
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureRecommend Improvements•Attempt to find solutions for the issues while maintaining or improving those parts of the process that are working well.•Review the Standard for the process and verify which requirements are being met.•Resolve duplication of effort where possible•Refine the process map, integrating suggestions for improvement−Where possible, test improvements on a small scale−Consider the practical applications
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureDocument the Future State•Create a process document that captures the details of each procedure. (Note: Precise, step-by-step directions can be left to work instructions.)•The process document should include the following sections:−Purpose−Scope−Roles and responsibilities−Materials and equipment required−Documentation that is referenced−A section for each procedure in the process (including planning and retention documents)
Step 3: Improve the Process and CultureDocument the Future State (cont’d)•Next, create the work instructions as required to support the process document:−Specific instructions for key points in the process−Written in great detail and often include photos and diagrams−Typically followed by one employee to complete one step in a procedure•Once the process is documented comprehensively, review it as a group to confirm how it fits into the organization’s culture and ensure it meets the Standard.
Step 3: Improve the Process and CulturePresent the Findings•To understand the importance of presenting these finds to top management, one must reflect on the governance model for quality management:Organizational Construct 1–There is a hierarchical relationship between all employees in the organization (i.e. A reports to B)–This is responsible for workplace culture and confirming competency and engagement Organizational Construct 2–There is a transformation of process inputs into outputs through a series of cascading “customer-supplier” relationships between employees in different functional groups
Step 3: Improve the Process and CulturePresent the Findings (cont’d)Organizational Construct 3–The PAT creates or improves a process but does not have the authority to implement recommendations–Top management must approve the recommendations, hence the presentation•The presentation should include the following:–Agenda–The new process–Purpose and scope of the process–Recommendations–Definitions and key terms–Next steps–Requirements of the Standard that apply–Why the process is important–Benefits to the organization of implementingthe recommendations
Step 4: TrainPrepare the Organization to Succeed•After top management approval, it is time to implement the recommendations.•Finish up any other projects first, as required.•Find a suitable launch time.
Step 4: TrainProvide Detailed TrainingTraining involves six key steps:1.Assess the level of experience of the personnel to be trained and adjust the detail of training accordingly.2.Review the process document, work instructions, and other reference material.3.Demonstrate the process, procedures, and work instructions.4.Have the employee work through the process with the instructor there.5.Have the employee “fly solo.”6.Record the results of the “solo flight.”
Step 4: TrainProvide Awareness as Required•Employees involved in a process should be given detailed training. •Everyone else in the organization should receive awareness of the process. •This helps everyone to be proactive in doing what’s necessary to make the process a success.
Step 5: Go LiveCommunicate the Starting Date + Ready, Set, Go!•Inform everyone in advance of the launch of the new process.•In preparation for the launch, the PAT should make a risk assessment:1.What could go wrong on launch day?2.What contingency actions should be contemplated?3.Should those contingency actions be incorporated into the launch plan or await a trigger?
Step 6: Follow UpWithin the First Three Weeks•Are the results within specification?•Are employees following the process as written?–If the process is being followed but there are unacceptable results, determine the root cause, modify, and update training.–If the process is not being followed, determine the root cause.Within the First Year•Conduct a formal audit.•Undertake any corrective actions required as a result of the audit.
Works CitedHartz, M., & Crosier, T. (1992). Process action team handbook.Rome, NY: Reliability Analysis Center, U.S. Department of Defense.