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1Economics and plant Conserrvation: For Conservation of a specie we see that what is economic importance of it and intrensic values. Because available natural resources (in a sense, stocks of natural capital) may place a serious constraint on future consumption and utilization, conservation is a necessary consideration for sustainable development. It is one of the foundations of continued economic growth. Conservation of natural resources increasingly is a major concern of both conservationists and developers Valuing resources: Value and benefits of plant species, ecosystems, and biological diversity frequently are underestimated. It is important to point out that biological diversity relates to most facets of people’s lives. In fact, biological resources really are beyond value: their raw materials underpin every economic activity and many human preferences. But many people, corporations, and governments have yet to realize this. They need to have demonstrated the contribution species and ecosystems make to national economics. Values can be classified as follows as direct or indirect. Direct values include consumptive use value and productive use valueboth demand values. Indirect values includes nonconsumptive use value, an intrinsic and transformative value; option value, a demand value; and existence value, an intrinsic value. Direct use value: These are direct use values where the biodiversity products can be harvested and consumed directly e.g. fuel, food, drugs, fibre etc. Such resources are consumed directly without passing through a market. This value applies to products that are consumed directly, without passing through a market. It can include such values as recreational experience. Consumptive use values seldom appear in national economic statements, but have considerable importance. For example; Fossil fuel is a consumptive value of high importance in rural tropical communities. A study of the use of trees by four indigenous Amazonian indians showed that the percentage of tree species used varied from 48 to 79. In many countries fuelwood may provide 80 to 90 % of primary energy needs, much of it gathered by users. Consumptive use value can be assigned a price in various ways. Perhaps the easiest is to estimate market value as if the goods were sold on the open market. Productive use values: If production comes in market what will be its price. 20 percent GTP of world goes to America which has approximately 2 percent.This value is often included in budgets and economic statements because it is more readily estimated than most others. It is the value assigned to products that are commercially harvested. Species do not have to be directly harvested as food or fuel to have direct productive use value. Plants harvested as raw products for drugs, for instance, have productive use value, this being related to the value of the end product. Productive use values can be high: counting all benefits involved, including social benefits, the value of plant-based drugs ranges from U.S. $200 billion to $1.8 trillion annually for all OECD countries. It is in developing countries that the contribution of wild plants is greatest in direct economic terms. In the humid tropics, the use of natural forests for wood export industries is usually a major source of income. Even in the United States, a detailed analysis of the contributions of wild plants and animals showed that about 4.5 percent of gross domestic product is attributable to wild species. Direct economic values can increase rapidly as alternative sources become unavailable. Indirect use values: These are the functional services that the environmental asset supports and in which benefits are derived from. Indirect use values may be; Non consumptive use value
2 Option value Existence value Non consumptive use value: It refers to all of the “functions” or “services” of natural systems, as well as scientific research, bird-watching, etc. They rarely are included in any national accounting. Option value: The value of retaining options available for the future, such as yet-undiscovered new crops and medicines. Existence value: The value of ethical feelings for the existence of nature. Many of us attach value to the existence of a species or habitat that we are unlikely ever medicine to see mountain gorillas, the deep rainforests of Amazonia, the highlands of Madagascar. This may include the satisfaction of knowing that certain species exist in the wild, or an ethical dimension of responsibility to nature, or future generations, or other peoples. Ethical principles are a backhanded encouragement to its biodiversity as it associates with biodiversity conservation Aesthetic values are an abnormal motivation for biodiversity as distinctive scenes at undisturbed spots are excellent to watch and provide options for leisure exercises that advance the eco-travel industry that further develops zoological nurseries, national parks, structuring. Conservation legislation: The Basis for Legislation Primitive humanity, emerging into organized society from a huntergatherer lifestyle, lived close to the land. The land and its natural products were essential to survival. So primitive tribal groups developedperhaps often unconsciouslysustainable systems that became part of everyday life. Sustainable systems became part of traditional codes binding the daily life of individuals, villages, and tribal groups. As society evolved, however, so did the legislative basis that gradually became essential to govern relationships between human beings. In parallel with civil law, which dealt with private matters such as the family, property, contracts, torts, and successions, other branches of law developed to regulate relations between individuals and society or the state. As human activities diversified, specialized bodies of rules had to be enacted to deal with specific and complex subjects such as commerce, agriculture, forestry, taxes, and, much more recently, planning and land use, to mention but a few. Environmental law, as a distinct branch of law, only emerged a few decades ago. Its objective is to regulate activities and behaviors that may affect any or all of the basic components of the environment, namely, air, water, soils, flora, and fauna. Where its purpose is to preserve wild species and natural ecosystems, environmental law is often more appropriately termed conservation law. Habitat Restoration: Habitat restoration is a frequently used term that appears in a variety of areas. The term generally used for restoring ecosystems for the specific purpose of providing habitat either for the individual species or for the entire suite of species likely to be found in an area. It is also used more broadly to represent the restoration of native plant communities. There appears to be a continuum of expectations around this issue, with some projects aiming at, for instance, restoring ‘‘forest,’’ and others focusing on specific structural elements of the forest, on important forest processes, or on factors that benefit target species. Habitat restoration projects:
3Habitat restoration projects vary greatly in scale, ranging from small urban restorations aiming to restore patches of native plant species through landscape-scale projects that aim to counteract the impacts of habitat fragmentation by increasing the amount and connectivity of habitat over broad areas. Goals are derived from a complex mix of ecological, social, historical, and philosophical viewpoints but, in many cases, are not formulated in such a way as to guide effective habitat restoration. Resource availability will depend on landscape connectivity for species requiring multiple habitats, and this becomes a key issue, especially in areas dominated by human activities. If the distance between habitats is short relative to the dispersal capability of the target species, it may only be necessary to provide structural features that are similar to those in the remnants. Additional resources may also be required if the dispersal capability of the focal species is limited relative to the distance that must be covered. For example; The addition of habitat to Fish and Wildlife Service Refuges, National Parks, state parks and tribal lands; invasive species control; fish passage in streams and rivers; construction of bird nesting islands; wetland, saltmarsh, and eel grass bed restoration; and endangered mussel reintroductions. Species Centered legislation: Species-centered legislation is concerned directly with the conservation of target species or groups of species. It should not, however, be viewed as a substitute to the establishment of protected areas and land-use controls, but rather as an often essential complement. Indeed, protected areas usually are established for purpose other than the conservation of particular threatened plants; and many species, especially when their habitat is very localized, are, therefore, likely to remain unprotected by a protected area system. In addition, even when target species are included in protected areas, specific legislation may be necessary to control their possession, transport, and trade. Ideally, species-centered legislation should be aimed at controlling all the factors that may adversely affect a particular species, including habitat destruction or alteration, pollution, the introduction of alien species, and threats to the survival of its pollinators or seed dispensers. Trade Controls: Trade in fully or partially protected plant species is generally prohibited. On the other hand, trade in unprotected species is generally unrestricted. Where the commercial collection of a species is controlled, however, trade in that species must naturally also be regulated. Indeed, if a commercial collection permit is to be effective, it must be supplemented by controls applied to all the other links in the trade chain. These links include the licensing of traders, nurseries, and plant processing industries, and the obligation for licensees to keep records of their transactions and use a system of tags accompanying traded specimens as far as their final destination. Finally, there is often a prohibition against buying or selling plants obtained from persons other than licensed sellers or growers. Examples of these elaborate trade controls can be found in several Australian states such as New South Wales and Western Australia, as well as in the Cape Province of South Africa. They were instituted because of the large volume of trade in wild cut flowers in these areas. The tagging system has been established in certain states of the United States such as California and Texas, mainly to control trade in desert plants. Controls also are needed when commercial growers deal with the plants that are subject to collection restrictions. The objectives of such controls are to ensure that nurseries do not obtain their propagation material from unlawfully collected wild specimens, and that they do not sell wild plants under the pretense that they were artificially propagated. Interprovincial or inter-regional trade in wild plants within federal states may give rise to difficult problems where trade of a particular species is prohibited or restricted in one or more of the territorial entities concerned but not in the others. In such an event, specimens that have been unlawfully obtained in one state or province often may be freely sold in the others. Ideally, legislation should be enacted at a national level to ensure that uniform rules are applied throughout the country. Such legislation exists in the United States: it is called the Lacey Act. Where domestic trade in wild plants is controlled, prohibitions or restrictions usually extend to the import and export of specimens of protected species. Import controls are necessary to ensure that specimens that have been unlawfully collected in the importing country itself have not been exported and subsequently imported as if they were of foreign origin. Import controls also can assist exporting countries in the control of their exports. Export controls are necessary to prevent the export of unlawfully obtained specimens, which, under such a system, would require the
4delivery of export permits. These should only be granted to exporters who are able to prove that the specimens they propose to export have been lawfully obtained. Collection Controls There are many reasons for collecting or harvesting wild plants: scientific research by professional or amateur botanists, commercial trade, traditional subsistence uses, or merely personal enjoyment or consumption of wildflowers or other plants (e.g., mushrooms). With the development of trade (particularly international trade) in many species of wild plants for the extraction of drugs or for ornamental purposes, there is an increasing risk that many more species will soon become extinct if no effective collection and trade controls are instituted. Examples of such plants at risk are the medicinal species of Dioscorea and Rauvolfia, and many ornamentals such as cacti, orchids, Cyclamen species, and several species of Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae Types of Collection Controls Protection of wild plants from collection may be total or partial. Total protection consists of an absolute prohibition to collect whole plants, or parts of plants, belonging listed fully protected species. Exceptions may generally be made for the purpose of scientific research, subject to the granting of a special permit. For partially protected plants, legislation usually prohibits the uprooting or digging up of subterranean parts and restricts the collection of aerial parts to a small number of specimens, which may vary according to species and countries but seldom exceeds twenty Types of Activities Controlled Research Collection for scientific purposes is often regarded as a minor form of exploitation. It has, however, the potential seriously to deplete endangered species, especially where collectors visit the same sites continually Yet scientific collection is necessary to improve our knowledge of wild plants or to obtain germ plasm for use in breeding and crop improvement.To prevent overexploitation, legislation now usually requires special permits to be issued for collecting protected plants for scientific purposes, or for collecting any plant for such purposes from protected areas. Commercial Collection The collection for commercial purposes of protected plants is generally prohibited. In addition, legislation usually also forbids the possession, for any purpose, of these plants. The main goal of this type of provision is to facilitate the enforcement of prohibitions and to remove potential incentives to unlawful collection. In addition, certain countries now control the collection for commercial purposes of otherwise unprotected plants. This is achieved by requiring collectors to apply for commercial collection permits. These controls may apply to certain listed species only, or to the collection of all wild plants. Traditional and Subsistence Collection In traditional closed systems, the collection of wild plants for the personal use of the collector and his or her family, for barter, or for limited trade on local markets have seldom constituted a serious threat to the survival or the sustainable use of the species concerned. The quantities collected were probably relatively small, and these customary systems were generally sufficiently well self-regulated to prevent overcollection. Collection by the General Public for Noncommercial Purposes Most of the restrictions mentioned in the preceding paragraph are applicable not only to traditional uses but also to the public at large; the collection of many wild plants for personal consumption or use, in particular berries and mushrooms, has become increasingly popular with city dwellers. Ecosystem centered legislation: Wild plant species also may be preserved by other legal instruments that are not specifically directed at the conservation of individual species, but which, nonetheless, provide a high degree of protection to natural or seminatural habitats and, as a result, to all the plants they contain.The best known of these instruments is the protected area and it is generally the preferred one (when available), although conventional protected areas, such as
5national parks and nature reserves, will never be sufficient to safeguard the world’s biological diversity. One of the main reasons for this is that in the countries where protected areas can only be established on public land, the cost of land acquisition is becoming a limiting factor. On the other hand, in those mainly Western European nations where protected areas may be created on privately owned land by government order, local opposition has made the adoption of such orders increasingly difficult. New and innovative instruments, therefore, have been developed for the conservation of biological diversity.