Project Part 0. Research question

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Answer the questions about the research.
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HOA 735: HOSPITALITY RESEARCH METHOD
Project Part 0: Topic [5 points]
Your names and student ID numbers:
Purpose: In this class, we will design three studies – one qualitative study (focus group or interview), one survey study, and one experiment – to investigate one research question. Although each of the studies is unique (with different sampling techniques, questions, and design), they all have a common purpose of understanding the same research question. This worksheet guides you in identifying a research question.
A research question is considered “good” with theoretical and practical contributions. Academic research tends to focus on causal research that investigates cause-and-effect relationships between two or more concepts. Theoretically, a research question is good when it is novel (i.e., testing a research question from a new perspective) and theoretically based (i.e., your research question is based on an overarching theoretical framework). Practically, a research question is good when it can help the industry to solve some “real” problem that is common, significant, and pressing. As you read Colquitt and George (2011), you will also learn that a research question is good when it fulfils at least one of the five effective topic criteria (significance, novelty, curiosity, scope, and actionability).
1. Area of research
What area do you want to focus on? Narrow your focus to 1 focus area (e.g., customers, employees, technology, social/ environmental, etc.).
* Not sure what you would like to do? Read some faculty publications and previous class projects’ research questions from other students (at the end of this worksheet).
2. Research problem [2 points]
What is the problem within that area? Think about a problem/ situation that could affect a hospitality business or a topic in hospitality that interests you. (e.g., abusive supervisory behaviors, labor shortage problem, Yelps review, robot, sustainability)?
Please start with a one-sentence problem statement, followed by an elaboration of the problem.
3. Interestingness of the problem [2 points]
A research question is only good when it is interesting to you and have theoretical and practical implication. First, please explain why the problem interests you (personally). Then, discuss how the topic fulfills one of the five effective topic criteria (significance, novelty, curiosity, scope, and actionability) as explained by Colquitt and George (2011).

4. Translating a problem to a research question [1 point]
In this class, we focus on conducting research testing the cause-and-effect relationship. It is common for you to approach a problem by identifying its causes or showing its effects. For example, a researcher can understand the employee turnover problem by studying why employees have high turnover (e.g., bad leadership) or the problem of high employee turnover (e.g., low customer satisfaction).
It is also important to note that the same problem can be approached from multiple perspectives. For example, suppose you are interested in studying the cause of customer mistreatment (of the employee). In that case, you may approach it from the employee’s perspective (e.g., poor employee service performance as a cause of customer mistreatment), customer’s perspective (e.g., customers with high trait anger are more likely to engage in customer mistreatment), or organizational perspective (e.g., organization that emphasize of “customers are kings and queens are more likely to end up with more customer mistreatment). A research question will be limited to only one perspective, focusing on a limited number of causes and effects.
For this class, we will design three studies that use primary data collection methods (i.e., the researcher will collect data first-hand). This method allows researchers to design their questions in the data collection. However, it can be easier to collect sufficient data from individuals (i.e., individual employees, individual customers), and it can be challenging to collect data at the unit level (i.e., department level, team level, hotel levels). We will NOT collect actual data in this class. Instead, this class set you up nicely for dissertation, thesis, and other research projects.
To ensure your future success, please limit your research question to those with an individual level of analysis. For example, looking at individual employee turnover intention or customer repurchase intention is good. Do not approach a research question with a unit level of analysis. However, please avoid research questions involving departmental turnover or the profitability of an organization.
Please explain your research question by filling in the blank of the following sentence:
5. (Optional) Peer-review sign up
We stand on the shoulder of giants, and research is about learning from each other. Learning how to constructively evaluate research can help you to improve your research skills. You can sign up for peer review for Project Part 1. Students interested in peer review will sign up and be assigned a peer review partner, whom they can work with for an offline process. Students who signed up for the peer review MUST complete the peer review for their partners in exchange for their project to be peer-reviewed. The peer review, which needs to be cc’d to Dr. Cass, will help you earn up to 3 extra credits.
-1 point: late submission of peer-review or assignment for peer-review
0 points: no peer review was given OR rude/ demeaning/ unprofessional peer review
1 point: only gave a score but did not give detailed comments
2 points: a general critique of mistakes and strengths
3 points: constructive review that not only points out mistakes but is also able to identify strengths and provide suggestions for improvement
If you sign up for the peer-review, you must complete your Project Part 1 and peer-review before the Project Part 1 due date. It means submitting a completed Project Part 1 one week before the due date and conducted a review within 2 days.
Does your team want to sign up for peer review (Please highlight the option)?
__________ Yes __________ No

Rubric
Information Only: Research Questions From Previous Classes’ Projects
Hotels/ Casino and Customers
What is the effect of casino hosts’ personalized interaction on customer satisfaction?
What can be implemented to casino loyalty problem to increase customer satisfaction?
How does personalization affect the customer satisfaction in traditional hotel industry?
What is the effect of service attentiveness on guest satisfaction for Chinese and American guests?
Is customer satisfaction different between the luxury vacation rentals on Airbnb and luxury vacation rentals by luxury hotels?
What is the impact of hotel theming in China on customers’ experience and satisfaction?
What features or amenities are most valued by leisure travellers when selecting a hotel room?
Employees and Employee Issues
How does non-remunerative benefits affect employee retention?
Sign-on bonuses for new hospitality employees: Effects on existing employees.
Why employee write online employee review? The impact of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control.
Does gender bias affect leadership emergence among women?
What are the causes of kitchen employee turnover? The role of inequity and job dissatisfaction.
How does transformational leadership affect employee turnover rate: The role of employee satisfaction?
What is the effect of server race on and customers’ perception of employee’s hygiene level and service performance?
How do abusive supervision and passive leadership styles affect employee theft rationalizations within an organization?
Does managerial recognition improves employees’ customer service performance and lower turnover?
Examining the impact of workplace social distancing rules on employee engagement and job satisfaction.
Job automation and turnover intention: A career perspective
Effect of third-party delivery service on restaurant employees
Sustainability in Hospitality
What is the effect of greenwashing on customer loyalty?
How does green tourism affects consumer behavior?
What are the effects of golf tourism sustainability from the perspectives of golf courses, surrounding tourism, and communities?
Technology Impacts on Hospitality Customers
How does in-room smart speaker impact hotel customers’ satisfaction?
What is the impact of concierge robots on customer satisfaction and loyalty in hospitality industry?
Which guest room technology controller is better? App-based controller or smart-speaker controller?
What is the effect of artificial intelligence on guest experience in a post COVID-19?
What affects customers’ acceptance of esports betting? The role of traditional sports betting frequency and esports consumption rate.
What is the effect of online travel agency characteristics on Korean Millennial’s repurchase intention?
How Instagram influencers influence travel decisions among Millennial women?
Using contactless mobile payment in the US hospitality industry: Impact on customer satisfaction and revisit intention.
Information Only: Faculty Publication
Employee and Employee Issues
Shum, C., Gatling, A., & Garlington, J. (2020). All people are created equal? Racial discrimination and its impact on hospitality career satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, Article 102407.
Tu, M., Bono, J. E., Shum, C., & LaMontagne, L. (2018). Breaking the cycle: The effects of role model performance and ideal leadership self-concepts on abusive supervision spillover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(7), 689–702.
Shum, C., Ghosh, A., & Garlington, J. (in press). Why won’t she break rules to promote service? Effects of gender, gender identification, and honesty. International Journal of Hospitality Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102607
Gatling, A., Kim, J., & Milliman, J. (2016). The relationship between workplace spirituality and hospitality supervisors’ work attitudes. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(3), 471–489.
Ma, Z., Kim, H. J., & Shin, K. H. (2019). From customer-related social stressors to emotional exhaustion: An application of the demands–control model. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 43(7), 1068–1091.
Cain, C., Cain, L., & Lough, N. (2020). Exploring strategies to improve gender equity in a masculinized field of study. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Article 100230.
Customers
Belarmino, A. M., & Koh, Y. (2018). How E-WOM motivations vary by hotel review website. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(8), 2730–2751.
Book, L. A., Tanford, S., & Chen, Y. S. (2016). Understanding the impact of negative and positive traveler reviews: Social influence and price anchoring effects. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 993-1007.
Berry, R., Tanford, S., Montgomery, R., & Green, A. J. (2018). How we complain: The effect of personality on consumer complaint channels. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(1), 74-101.
Henthorne, T. L., Williams, A. J., & George, B. P. (2018). Cross-cultural consumer complaining behavior in service industries: A three-nation study across the African diaspora. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 26(4), 431-446.
Lo, A., King, B., & Mackenzie, M. (2020). Segmenting Chinese millennial restaurant customers: A lifestyle and health and environmental consciousness approach. Journal of China Tourism Research, 16(2), 183-213.
Kim, W. G., Ng, C. Y. N., & Kim, Y. S. (2009). Influence of institutional DINESERV on customer satisfaction, return intention, and word-of-mouth. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(1), 10-17.
Chen, C. C., Schwartz, Z., & Vargas, P. (2011). The search for the best deal: How hotel cancellation policies affect the search and booking decisions of deal-seeking customers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 129-135.
Coleman, J. T., Royne, M. B., & Pounders, K. R. (2020). Pride, guilt, and self-regulation in cause-related marketing advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 49(1), 34-60.
Food & Nutrient
Bergman, C. J. (2020). Rice: Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. In A. C. de Oliveira, C. Pegoraro, & V. E. Viana (Eds.), The future of rice demand: Quality beyond productivity (1st ed., pp. 205-223). Springer International Publishing.
Pricing and Finance
Madanoglu, M., & Ozdemir, O. (2018). Economic policy uncertainty and hotel operating performance. Tourism Management, 71, 443-452.
Chatfield, H. K., Chatfield, R. E., Baloglu, S., & Poon, P. (2020). Preferred stock issuance in the restaurant industry and financial distress. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 23(5), 401-416.
Technology-Related Topics
Zemke, D. M. V., Tang, J., Raab, C., & Kim, J. (2020). How to build a better robot… for quick-service restaurants. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 44(8), 1235-1269.
Lema, J. D. (2009). Preparing hospitality organizations for self-service technology. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 8(2), 153-169.
Erdem, M., Atadil, H. A., & Nasoz, P. (2019). Leveraging guest-room technology: A tale of two guest profiles. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 10(3), 255–268.
Busser, J. A., Shulga, L. V., Kang, H. J. A., & Molintas, D. H. R. (2019). The effect of hospitality conference messaging on employee job responses. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 78, 284-292.
Yu, H., Shum, C., Alcorn, M., Sun, J., & He, Z. (2022). Robots can’t take my job: antecedents and outcomes of Gen Z employees’ service robot risk awareness. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 34(8), 2971-2988.
Casinos and Gaming
Abarbanel, B., Gray, H. M., LaPlante, D. A., & Bernhard, B. J. (2019). Association between employee department and responsible gambling program perceptions. International Gambling Studies, 19(3), 471-488.
Lucas, A. F., & Spilde, K. (in press). Pushing the limits of increased casino advantage on slots: An examination of performance effects and customer reactions. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965520916436
Eisendrath, D., Bernhard, B. J., Lucas, A. F., & Murphy, D. J. (2008). Fear and managing in Las Vegas: An analysis of the effects of September 11, 2001, on Las Vegas Strip gaming volume. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 49(2), 145-162.
Kim, J. S., Song, H. J., & Lee, C. K. (2016). Effects of corporate social responsibility and internal marketing on organizational commitment and turnover intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55, 25-32.
Woo, E., Kim, H., & Uysal, M. (2015). Life satisfaction and support for tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 84-97.

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