QUESTION 3 Cancer comprises many diseases with a common…

QUESTION 3
Cancer comprises many diseases with a common cause: uncontrolled cell growth. Cancer is a complex response to a host of environmental mutagens as well as the accumulation of random mutations. Since the “war on cancer” began in 1971, the death rate due to cancer has changed very little despite the discovery of several tumor-suppressor genes, including p53.
Mutational signatures of p53 are shown in the figure (G.P. Pfeifer et al., Nature, 21(48), 2002) for the three types of cancer with the highest death rates in the United States: lung (~225,000 deaths in 2016), breast (246,000), and colorectal (381,000).
These data can be obtained by sequencing the gene that encodes p53. Approximately 85 percent of lung cancers occur in smokers. Based on these data, calculate how many deaths due to lung cancer among nonsmokers were reported in 2016.
How much does smoking increase the likelihood of death due to lung cancer?

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