writing report and need guidance to help me learn.
I need assistance in completing my recommendations for my study.
Begin writing here…
☐ Discuss recommendations for how the findings of the study can be applied to practice and/or theory. Support all the recommendations with at least one finding from the study and frame them in the literature from Chapter 2.
☐ Do not overstate the applicability of the findings.
Recommendations for Future Research
Begin writing here…
☐ Based on the framework, findings, and implications, explain what future researchers might do to learn from and build upon this study. Justify these explanations.
☐ Discuss how future researchers can improve upon this study, given its limitations.
☐ Explain what the next logical step is in this line of research.
Begin writing here…
☐ Provide a strong, concise conclusion to include a summary of the study, the problem addressed, and the importance of the study.
☐ Present the “take-home message” of the entire study.
☐ Emphasize what the results of the study mean with respect to previous research and either theory (PhD studies) or practice (applied studies).
The above are the directions. I’m attaching my previous work.
Requirements: 2 paragraphs per section | .doc file
Chapter 5: Implications, Recommendations, and Conclusions
Over time, research on leadership has transformed into an evaluation of how leadership is used in diverse social contexts. There is a lack of a systematic approach to developing school leaders to positively affect schools’ culture and climate (Chan et al., 2017). The problem that was addressed by this study was the lack of a systematic approach to developing school leaders to positively affect school climate (Chan et al., 2017). The purpose of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study was to examine the role of servant leadership practices on the culture and climate of inner-city elementary schools, through staff members’ lived experiences.
A qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological methodology was applied to this study to explore the perceptions and experiences of elementary teachers regarding how the school administrators’ leadership practices affect the culture and climate of the school. The objectives of this study were met through individual interviews with fifteen participants. The data collected was transcribed and analyzed using the cross-platform for analyzing qualitative methods research, Dedoose. The usage of open annotated code ensures that each voice emerges from each witness. The different themes and codes were manually categorized and examined after the data had been gathered.
Participants of this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study were identified through purposeful sampling. This sampling strategy was appropriate for finding participants who met the requirements of the study. Each participant had spent at least three years working in a high-poverty, Metro-Detroit elementary school. Three distinct schools were represented by the participants. Each participant had an interview, which was then transcribed in preparation for further data analysis.
The identity of the participants was protected, and measures were taken to ensure the validity of the information gathered through the interview. Data for the study was kept on a password-protected computer. Interview transcripts were edited to remove any personally identifying information and pseudonyms were given to each participant before being filed by number. Participants were made aware of the goal of the study, how the data will be used for the study, and that they could opt out of the study at any time during the data collection process. The transcript of the interview was made available to participants for evaluation. The goal of this participant assessment, also known as member checking, was to guarantee data accuracy and fidelity to the research procedure.
In analyzing and reviewing the participants’ responses, the data revealed six themes that helped respond to the research questions. The themes that emerged included: support, open communication, growth and development, community building, being aware of the building needs, and empowerment. Each of these themes can be linked to Greenleaf’s (1970) servant leadership traits, as detailed below in Table 1. When asked about the leadership practices that have contributed to a positive school culture and climate, 66.7% of the participants responded that support and open communication were the most beneficial and effective, in regard to the atmosphere of the building, whereas 33.3% of the participants responded that community building was the most beneficial and effective. Consequently, support and open communication were the most important reflections made by these individuals. Through their shared testimonies, it became clear that the school principal’s leadership skills had a significant impact on the kinds of situations these instructors encountered. The servant-leadership paradigm developed by Greenleaf was an ideal framework for examining this subject further using the shared experiences of the fifteen participants. This paradigm enabled a more comprehensive understanding of the fifteen participants who were interviewed and their experiences with leadership qualities under their school principal, as well as how it had affected school culture and climate.
There are limitations in every study (Theofanidis & Fountouki, 2018). Practical limitations included (1) not being able to view body language and all personal gestures of the responders, (2) the shortened length of the interviews. To alleviate the first limitation, participants were asked to have their cameras on, showing as much of their upper body as possible. This gave the researcher the ability to see more of the participants’ body language. Additionally, to alleviate the second limitation, the researcher listened intently and encouraged the participants to share anything more they could think of. In a phenomenological study, interviews typically range from 45 to 90 minutes, while the range for this study was 15 to 26 minutes (Seidman, 2006, p. 20). These limitations had no impact on the study’s trustworthiness because the goal of the study, trust, and communication were all created at the onset of the initial email, inviting participants to the final thank you email.
Chapter 5 includes a summary of the significance of the study. Additionally, there is discussion of the study’s practical application implications, particularly as they relate to teachers’ lived experiences with servant leadership. Chapter 5 also includes a description of the implications of the study, recommendations for practice, and recommendations for future research.
This study explored the characteristics and influence of an administrator demonstrating servant-leadership attributes in the school setting. The researcher concentrated on three research questions designed to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of teachers regarding the leadership attributes of their principals. The finding’s implications are detailed below, organized by research question.
Research Question 1
Research question 1 explored the impact of the implementation of servant-leadership on school culture. From this question, four themes emerged.
Theme 1. The first theme was support, focused on administrators encouraging teachers and students to work toward achieving shared objectives and strengthen community ties. Principals were described as creating a supportive school environment, in which teachers recognized that their leader felt responsible for success and was willing to work with them toward a common goal: a positive school culture. This theme aligns with the servant-leadership trait, stewardship. Stewardship is the readiness to accept accountability for bigger organizations and to offer assistance (Heyler & Martin, 2018). Thus, one implication of the findings from the participants is that support and stewardship is an important leadership attribute in principals, that helps create a positive school culture.
Theme 2. The second theme was open communication focused on administrators being transparent and creating open lines of communication with staff. Participants stated that having a principal that listens, modeled for them the ways they needed to communicate with their students. Principals were also described as being empathetic as part of their open communication. This empathy allowed teachers to feel more connected to their administrator and allowed them to share their questions, concerns, and suggestions openly. Thus, this theme aligns with the servant-leadership traits, listening and empathy. Listening encompasses hearing one’s own inner voice, coupled with periods of reflection (Heyler & Martin, 2018). Thus, a second implication of the findings from the participants is that open communication is an important leadership attribute in principals, that helps promote a positive school culture.
Theme 3. The third theme was growth and development and focused on principals allowing their teachers the opportunity to attend professional development trainings and help them increase their professional knowledge. Participants noted that professional growth was required for teachers to continue to support students’ individual needs. Commitment to growth of people displays determination to enabling others to plan out a clear professional path and offer them with resources to progress from one level to the next (Heyler & Martin, 2018). A third implication of the findings from the participants is that the commitment to growth and development of teachers is an essential leadership attribute in principals promoting a positive school culture.
Theme 4. The fourth theme that emerged was community building which requires giving individuals a sense of belonging to something bigger than themselves. This theme is a servant-leadership trait: building community. During interviews, teachers described the negative effects to school culture when principals operate in silos and isolate the staff. Teachers become resentful, fatigued, and that attitude transfers over to how students are treated. Contrarily, principals that have created a sense of community among their teachers have made teachers feel supported. By modeling and implementing community building for teachers, they are able to transfer that knowledge to their students, creating thriving classroom communities.
Research Question 2
Research question 2 explored the impact of the implementation of servant-leadership on school climate. As culture and climate are so closely related, some researchers and works of literature use the phrase “school culture” mutually with “school climate” (Bear et al., 2014). From this question, the same four themes that emerged in research question 1, emerged again, with very similar responses.
Theme 1. The first theme was support, administrators’ efforts were concentrated on inspiring teachers and students to collaborate and build community through working toward common goals. Teachers were said to know that their principal took responsibility for their achievement and was eager to collaborate with them to achieve a common objective: a pleasant school climate. Stewardship, a feature of servant leadership, aligns to this topic. Thus, one implication from the participant findings is that support and stewardship are significant leadership qualities in principals that helps create a positive school climate.
Theme 2. The second theme was open communication focused on administrators being transparent and creating open lines of communication with staff. Participants claimed that having a principle who listens helped them by setting an example for how to interact with their kids. In addition to their open communication, principals were said to be sympathetic. Teachers were able to openly express their questions, worries, and suggestions because of this empathy, which made them feel more connected to their administrator. Thus, listening and empathy are attributes of servant leadership that are consistent with this notion. A second implication of the findings from the participants describes principals’ open communication as a key attribute, to create a positive school climate.
Theme 3. The third theme was growth and development and concentrated on principals giving their teachers the chance to participate in professional development workshops to help them advance their expertise in their fields. Participants agreed that teachers needed to advance their profession to continue meeting the unique needs of each student. A third implication of the findings from the participants is that the growth and development of teachers is a crucial leadership quality for principals who want to foster a pleasant school climate.
Theme 4. The fourth theme that emerged was community building which calls for inspiring people to feel like they are a part of something greater than themselves. Creating community is a quality of servant leadership, which is this theme. Teachers who participated in interviews spoke about how principals who work in isolation of the personnel have a detrimental impact on school culture. As a result of their weariness and resentment, teachers start to treat others poorly. On the other hand, principals who foster a feeling of community among their staff members have given staff members a sense of support. Teachers are better equipped to convey their knowledge to their students and develop successful classroom communities, fostering a positive school climate.
Research Question 3
Research question 3 explored the traits of servant-leadership that were exemplified in the school settings. From this question, two additional themes emerged.
Theme 5. The fifth theme was being aware of building needs. This theme correlated to three of the servant-leadership attributes: awareness, conceptualization, foresight. Being fully conscious of one’s strengths, weaknesses, values, sentiments, and emotions is known as awareness. In exploring servant-leadership traits, many of the teachers described their principals as having a constant and evolving awareness of the needs of the students and teachers in their buildings. They perceived this as an essential trait of an effective leader. Conceptualization is the process of anticipating future possibilities and balancing them with the reality of the present. Additionally, teachers described the ways in which their encouraged them to have balance in their professional lives as well as setting goals for the remainder of the year and backwards planning to create a plan of action to reach those goals.
Theme 6. The sixth theme was empowerment, which is linked to the commitment of growth of people. All of the participants noted that this was an essential trait for effective leadership. Their description explained how leaders play a pivotal role in enabling development and fostering innovation in schools and their teachers.
Table 1: Relationship Between Themes and Servant Leadership Traits
Recommendations for Practice
Recommendations for practice are given based on the findings of the study and are supported by relevant theory and literature. Recommendations provide a platform for new and expanded discussion and research studies centered around the topic.
Begin writing here…
Discuss recommendations for how the findings of the study can be applied to practice and/or theory. Support all the recommendations with at least one finding from the study and frame them in the literature from Chapter 2.
Do not overstate the applicability of the findings.
Recommendations for Future Research
Begin writing here…
Based on the framework, findings, and implications, explain what future researchers might do to learn from and build upon this study. Justify these explanations.
Discuss how future researchers can improve upon this study, given its limitations.
Explain what the next logical step is in this line of research.
Begin writing here…
Provide a strong, concise conclusion to include a summary of the study, the problem addressed, and the importance of the study.
Present the “take-home message” of the entire study.
Emphasize what the results of the study mean with respect to previous research and either theory (PhD studies) or practice (applied studies).
Theofanidis, D., & Fountouki, A. (2018). Limitations and Delimitations in the Research Process. Perioperative Nursing, 7(3), 155–163.
Irvine A., Drew P., Sainsbury R. (2013). ‘Am I not answering your questions properly?’ Clarification, adequacy and responsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews. Qualitative Research, 13(1), 87–106. 10.1177/1468794112439086
Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press.